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命题人: 易树常 郭丽 审题人: 郭丽 易树常
第Ｉ卷 （选择题 共70分）
My grandfather came from Hungary and was the only one in his family who settled down in the United States. The rest of his family remained in Europe. When World War I broke out, he seemed to have become another man, downhearted. Such obvious change was not born out of concern for his welfare, but out of fear: if his only son, my uncle, had to go to war, it would be cousin fighting against cousin.
One day in 1918, my Uncle Milton received his draft notice. My grandparents were very upset. But my mother, at the age of 10, felt on top of the world about her soldier brother going off to war. Realizing how he was regarded by his little sister and all of her friends, my uncle bought them all service pins, which meant that they had a loved one in the service. All the little girls were delighted.
The moment came when my uncle and the other soldiers, without any training but all in uniforms, boarded the train. The band played and the crowd cheered. Although no one noticed, I’m sure my grandmother had a tear in her eye for the only son. The train slowly pulled out, but not about a thousand yards when it suddenly paused. Everyone stared in wonder as the train slowly returned to the station. There was a dead silence before the doors opened and the men started to step out. Someone shouted, “The war is over!” For a moment, nobody moved, but then the people heard someone bark orders at the soldiers. The men lined up in two lines, walked down the steps, and with the band playing, marched down the street, as returning heroes, to be welcomed home. My mother said it was a great day, but she was just a little disappointed that it didn’t last a tiny bit longer.
1. What the grandfather was most worried about was .
A. the spread of the world war B. the safety of his two cousins
C. a drop in his living standards D. his relatives killing each other
2. The underlined phrase “draft notice” means________.
A. order for army service B. train ticket for Europe
C. letter of rejection D. note of warning
3. What did the “service pins” (in Para.2) stand for in the eyes of the little girls?
A. Strength B. Courage C. Victory D. Honor
4. Which of the following words can best describe the ending of the story?
A. Disappointing B. Unexpected C. Uncertain D. Inspiring
There is a 1930s-old restaurant in my hometown that has done little to update itself over the past 80 years. This is part of its charm, as is the wooden phone booth that sits neglected in the age of the cellphone.
Ah, the phone booth. We need it now more than ever.
For me it symbolizes that phone calls were once private affairs, even if the information being shared was not sensitive in any way. It was simply assumed that a phone conversation was meant for two people, and two people only. In public places this meant turning to the phone booth—a private chamber where one could converse in peace without being overheard.
Even at home, phone calls used to be regarded as private. Growing up in the 1960s, we had one phone in the house—fixed to the kitchen wall.
As a kid, I didn't get or make many calls. I do, however, remember answering the phone, asking for the identity of the caller, and then handing the phone to my mom. She'd take it, say “Hello, Mrs. Flaubert，” and then, “one moment please，” as she placed her hand over the receiver, turned to me, and directed, “This is for me. Why don't you go outside and play？”
Flash forward to what cellphones have done to the past. Within the space of very few years, private conversations have become public declaration, and being overheard seems to be the point. A large part of the problem, of course, is that we now carry our phones with us, and the reflex(反射) to answer the device as soon as it rings is a response Pavlov would have appreciated.
But the information is revealed! Not long ago I was sitting in Boston's South Station, waiting for my train. After purchasing a sandwich, I sat down at a table near a man who was on his cellphone.
Let me paraphrase what the man had to say：“Yes, that's right. The red and yellow roses. That will be a Visa.” Then he proceeded to recite his card number and expiration date before signing off.
I stared unbelievably at the fellow. He glanced at me and asked，“What？”
My response was immediate: I recited his card number back to him, along with the expiration date.
There is no more privacy, no longer a sense of personal borders or limits and the cellphone has become a loudspeaker.
To return to phone booths: Why did they disappear? And should you think a phone booth has no value today, I saw one on eBay going for $4，750.
5. Why do private conversations turn into public declaration according to the passage?
A. Phone booths have died out in modern life.
B. People lack a sense of personal borders or limits.
C. The content of phone calls is not that sensitive.
D. It is convenient for people to reach for cellphones.
6. By describing what happened in Boston's South Station, the author indicates that ________．
A. it's ridiculous to answer cellphones in public places
B. it's impolite to overhear others answering cellphones
C. it's necessary to keep a safe distance from others when answering phones
D. it's inappropriate to touch on personal information in cellphone conversations
7. What can we conclude from the passage?
A. Pavlov is in favor of answering cellphones instantly.
B. Something seemingly old-fashioned holds its charm today.
C. Phone booths are very popular with consumers on the Internet.
D. People used to lack a sense of trust and security in the 1960s.
There are an extremely large number of ants worldwide. Each individual ant hardly weighs anything, but put together they weigh roughly the same as all of mankind. They also live nearly everywhere, except on frozen mountain tops and around the poles. For animals of their size, ants have been astonishingly successful, largely due to their wonderful behavior.
In colonies (群体) that range in size from a few hundred to tens of millions, they organize their lives with a clear division of labor, ants depend primarily on pheromones , chemicals sent out by individuals and smelled or tasted by fellow members of their colony. When an ant finds food, it produces a pheromone that will lead others straight to where the food is. When an individual ant comes under attack or is dying, it sends out an pheromone to warn the colony to prepare for a conflict as a defense unit.
In fact, when it comes to the art of war, ants have no equal. They are completely fearless and will readily take on a creature much larger than themselves, attacking in large groups and overcoming their target. Such is their devotion to the common good of the colony that not only soldier ants but also worker ants will sacrifice their lives to help defeat an enemy.
Behavior in this selfless and devoted manner, these little creatures have survived on Earth for more than 140 million years, far longer than dinosaurs. Because they think as one, they have a collective intelligence greater than you would expect from its individual parts.
8. We can learn from the passage that ants are _______.
A. not willing to share food
B. not found around the poles
C. more successful than all other animals
D. too many to achieve any level of organization
9. Ants can use pheromones for ______.
A. escape B. communication C. warning enemies D. arranging labor
10. What does the underlined expression “take on” in Paragraph 3 mean?
A. Accept B. Employ C. Play with D. Fight against
11. Which of the following contributes most to the survival of ants?
A. Their behavior B. Their size C. Their number D. Their weight
One day in 1995, a large, heavy middle-aged man robbed two Pittsburgh banks in broad daylight. He didn't wear a mask and he smiled at surveillance cameras before walking out of each bank. Later that night, police arrested a surprised McArthur Wheeler. When they showed him the surveillance tapes, Wheeler stared in disbelief. “But I wore the juice，” he said. Apparently, Wheeler thought that rubbing lemon juice on his skin would make him invisible to videotape cameras. After all, lemon juice is used as invisible ink, so, as long as he didn't come near a heat source, he should have been completely invisible.
The case caught the eye of the psychologist David Dunning at Cornell University, who enlisted his graduate student, Justin Kruger, to see what was going on. They reasoned that, while almost everyone holds favourable views of their abilities in various social and intellectual fields, some people mistakenly assess their abilities as being much higher than they actually are. This “illusion of confidence” is now called the “Dunning-Kruger effect”，and describes the cognitive bias to inflate self-assessment.
To investigate this phenomenon in the lab, Dunning and Kruger designed some clever experiments. In one study, they asked undergraduate students a series of questions about grammar, logic and jokes, and then asked each student to estimate his or her score overall, as well as their relative rankings compared to the other students. Interestingly, students who scored the lowest in these cognitive tasks always overestimated how well they did—by a lot. Students who scored in the bottom estimated that they had performed better than two-thirds of the other students!
Sure, it's typical for people to overestimate their abilities. The problem is that when people are incompetent, not only do they reach wrong conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but also they are robbed of the ability to realize their mistakes. In a semester-long study of college students, good students could better predict their performance on future exams if given feedback about their scores and rankings. However, the poorest performers showed no recognition, despite clear and repeated feedback that they were doing badly. Instead of being confused or thoughtful about their incorrect ways, incompetent people insist that their ways are correct. As Charles Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man(1871): “Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge.”
Interestingly, really smart people also fail to accurately self-assess their abilities. As much as D- and F-grade students overestimate their abilities, A-grade students underestimate theirs. The difference is that competent people can and do adjust their self-assessment if given appropriate feedback, while incompetent individuals cannot.
12.Which of the following statements about the Dunning-Kruger effect is TRUE?
A. The effect is true for everyone in daily life.
B. It suggests that most people lack cognitive abilities.
C. Some people are overconfident about their abilities.
D. The conclusion is drawn based on a series of bank robberies.
13. What do the college students' behaviors mentioned in the experiments prove?
A. Feedback plays a significant role in estimating one's ability.
B. Incompetent people have a rather fixed attitude towards their choice.
C. Good students always predict their future performance accurately.
D. People can't rely on their previous behavior to make adjustments.
14. The underlined word “begets” in Paragraph 4 can be replaced by “________”.
A. gives rise to B. takes advantage of C. makes up for D. breaks away from
15. What can we infer from the passage?
A. Real knowledge is knowing the extent of one's ignorance.
B. It is impossible for people to evaluate their real competence.
C. Illusion of confidence is the major source of people's failure.
D. Those with great abilities often have a low opinion of themselves.
Both men and women are living longer these days in industrialized countries. 16 In general, they can expect to live six or seven years more than men. One reason for this is biological. One important biological factor that helps women live longer is the difference in hormones between men and women. 17 Between the ages of about 12 and 50, women produce hormones that are involved in fertility(生育能力). These hormones also have a positive effect on the heart and the blood flow. In fact, women are less likely to have high blood pressure or to die from heart attacks.
18 They help the body defend itself against some kinds of infections. This means that women generally get sick less often and less seriously than men. The common cold is a good example: women, on average, get fewer colds than men.
19 Scientists are still not exactly sure how genes influence aging, but they believe that they do. Some think that a woman’s body cells have a tendency(倾向)to age more slowly than a man’s. Others think that a man’s body cells have a tendency to age more quickly. 20
A. However, women, on average, live longer.
B. The biological factor plays an important part.
C. Women are also helped by their female genes.
D. The female hormones also protect the body in another way.
E. Recent research seems to support both of these possibilities.
F. Therefore, women are more healthy than men and can live a better life.
G. Hormones are chemicals which are produced by the body to control various body functions.
In the summer before I entered middle school, I read the book They Cage the Animals at Night. It’s a story about Jennings, a boy living in various orphanages（孤儿院）with only his stuffed animal（毛绒玩具）, Doggie, for companionship. It’s a fascinating book, but little did I know how it would 21 my life and the lives of others.
One day, as I looked across my room at the pile of stuffed animals, a(n) 22 came to me. I would 23 stuffed animals for children like Jennings. 24 , I contacted agencies that support those children and they said the stuffed animals would certainly 25 children’s spirits.
I named my project “Cuddle Buddies”. I wrote articles for the local and school newspapers, 26 donations of the “buddies”—stuffed animals. My phone 27 ringing; schools, families, and toy factories all wanted to help. Much to my 28 , by the second week my living room looked like a zoo. Whenever Mom and I 29 the “buddies” to the agencies, the kids would be waiting there with their eyes down, too 30 to look but shaking with excitement.
Six years after its launch, Cuddle Buddies continues to 31 . Now over 25,000 stuffed animals have been 32 _to agencies worldwide. Simon, a seven-year-old boy in an African Children’s Home, couldn’t sleep at night after he lost his parents. When asked to choose his “buddies”, Simon 33 a panda and soon after was sleeping through the night. I never dreamed Cuddle Buddies would 34 this way.
Upon graduation from high school, I designed a website, www.cuddlebuddies.net , to 35 the project. The response was 36 . More and more people joined me and two dozen Cuddle Buddies 37 were established across the nation.
This has been a great experience. I’ve learned how to follow through on an idea and how to 38 impact a life. I will go to college with these 39 in mind and continue my work with Cuddle Buddies, even when I 40 a whole new set of exciting academic and nonacademic pursuits.
21. A．touch B．risk C．lead D．save
22. A．chance B．idea C．explanation D．word
23. A．display B．repair C．purchase D．collect
24. A．Previously B．Occasionally C．Immediately D．Gradually
25. A．capture B．reflect C．lift D．record
26. A．putting aside B．turning down C．asking for D．getting back
27. A．delayed B．kept C．stopped D．meant
28. A．knowledge B．taste C．regret D．delight
29. A．delivered B．applied C．rented D．returned
30. A．shy B．content C．weak D．eager
31. A．reform B．expand C．dominate D．divide
32. A．produced B．adopted C．sold D．donated
33. A．picked out B．came across C．showed off D．brought up
34. A．decline B．work C．increase D．react
35. A．promote B．start C．evaluate D．examine
36. A．confusing B．amusing C．automatic D．enthusiastic
37. A．companies B．committees C．branches D．institutes
38. A．financially B．positively C．socially D．physically
39. A．plans B．images C．lessons D．motives
40. A．work out B．keep off C．rely on D．engage in
第II 卷 （非选择题 共80分）
1. F______ in 1971 by a group of scientists and artists, Gaviotas has turned from a savanna into a green land.
2. Due to green technology, power in Gaviotas can be g______ from renewable resources, like wind and solar power.
3. Many lives were taken away by e__________ caused by bombs and dynamites in the World War I.
4. Taken the world over, 13% of the population still suffer from s________ or are actually dying from hunger..
5. The future would only be gloomy if people stuck to e_____ natural resources and polluting our environment.
6. The Noble Peace Prize is a______ annually to someone who contributes most to promoting peace for the world. .
7. Conflict r_____ programme is intended to help students deal with conflicts wisely and effectively.
8. Darcy felt that Elizabeth might not have a_____ him of his wrongdoings if he had flattered her.
9. Elizabeth considered Darcy’s manner of p_______offensive and it merely saved her from being worried.
10. Aung San Suu Kyi tried her very best to gain d________ and human rights for her people.
deprive …of make an attempt to attach to come up with come up head for
get rid of take possession of be absorbed in pick up accuse…of sort out
1. Sometimes it hurts Mike _____ the things he used to treasure. But then he will be relieved with more space.
2. Many people ______ a normal life during the two World Wars.
3. A kind co-worker offered___________ our lunch on his way back to the office.
4. If Stella fails to repay the money, the bank has the right to_____________her car.
5. Totally ____in his work, he didn’t realize that everyone else had gone.
6. In April next year, I ________Africa , where I will spend three years studying wild animals.
7. It's a pleasure to see that more and more people are taking up a foreign language, _____find a better job or to get kind of promotion.
8. The CEO needs to get away from the company and _____ his personal problems first.
9. After the meeting, they___________a new plan to make the team more efficient.
10. The past lessons have taught people to ___ great importance__ environment issues.
1. Women have been struggling _____________ equal rights.
2. Where unemployment and crime are high, it can ______(assumption) that the latter is due to the former.
3. If they abolished the government now, their country would be_____ complete chaos.
4. He was _______(alarm) to discover that his car was gone.
5. The survivors ,_____________ houses were destroyed , put up in the temporary tents.
6. They might have found a better hotel if they ________ (drive) a few more kilometers.
7. ____________ is known to us all that the time we can use is limited.
8. An __________(abandon) baby was found in a box on the hospital steps.
9. It was not until late at night __________the traveller found a hotel.
10. I armed myself _________ a baseball bat and went to investigate the noise.
第四节 单句改错（共10小题； 每小题0.5分，满分5分）
1. Many survivors of the D-Day landing went to the cemetery and memorial overlooks the Omaha Beach.
2. The survivors lied on the beach, exhausted and shocked.
3. As the situation at Omaha Beach was so bad, the commander considered abandon the invasion.
4. Every possible means have been tried to develop Gaviotas without polluting the environment.
5. It’s fundamental for two sides to arrive at an agreement which a win-win situation is created.
6. Britain had been at a war for eight months before Churchill became Prime Minister.
7. Cheers! Let’s all drink for the wealth and prosperity of our country!
8. The young soldier was so ashamed to admit that he had no girlfriend.
9. Michael Jordan, one of the best-known athletics in the world, was a legend in basketball games.
10. How amazing! The scorer threw the ball straightly through the basket with his eyes closed.
第五节 语篇语法填空（共10小题； 每小题1分，满分10分）
China has once again showed its ability to change the world with its “four great new __①____(invent)”—high-speed rail, electronic payment, shared bicycle, and online shopping.
China’s new-generation high-speed train, the Fuxing Hao, is now one of the __②____(fast) trains in the world, which can travel at a speed of 350 km/h. Besides high-speed rail, China __③___(improve) people’s lives in many other innovative (创新的) ways over the last decade.
Bike sharing, for example, is not new itself. But China has made __④__ much more convenient and popular both in China __⑤__ overseas. The leading Chinese bike-sharing companies Mobike and Ofo are now operating in foreign countries such as Singapore and Britain.
And back in China, when riding a shared bike, you can stop _⑥_(buy) and eat whatever you want _⑦__(simple) with a tap of your phone. You could easily pay with your smartphone by _⑧_(scan) the seller’s QR code. Cashless payment has grown into a _⑨__(choose)for Chinese people—even a pancake seller is using Alipay.
Besides, the four innovative ways of life are most appealing_ ⑩_ youths from 20 countries participating in the Belt and Road innovation, and they wish their countries would emulate(仿效) China in terms of technological achievements.
第六节 短文改错（共10小题； 每小题1分，满分10分）
When I was a very young children, my father created a regular practice I remember well years late. Every time he arrived home at end of the day, we’d greet her at the door. He would ask who we was and pretend not to knowing us. Then he and my mother would have had a drink while she prepared dinner and they would talk about his day and hers. While they chat, my father would lift my sister and me up to sit in the top of the fridge. It was both excited and frightening to be up there! My sister and I thought he was so cool for putting us there.
第七节 书面表达 （25分）
一、阅读 DADB DCB BBDA CBAA
三、完形 ABDCC CBDAA BDABA DCBCD
1. Founded 2. generated 3. explosions 4. starvation 5. exploiting
6. awarded 7. resolution 8. accused 9. proposal 10. democracy
1.to get rid of 2. were deprived of 3. to pick up 4.take possession of 5. absorbed in
6. will head for 7.making an attempt to 8.to sort out 9.came up with 10.attach to
1 for 2 be assumed 3 in 4 alarmed 5 whose
6 had driven 7 It 8 abandoned 9 that 10 with
1 overlooks---overlooking 2 lied---lay 3 abandon---abandoning 4 had-- has
5 which--where 6 At a war 7 for--to 8 so---too 9 athletics--athletes
10 straightly-- straight
1. inventions 2.fastest 3.has improved; 4.it 5.and;
6.to buy; 7.simply 8. scanning 9. choice 10.to
1 children---child 2 remember-remembered 3 late--later
4 her---him 5 was---were 6 knowing---know 7 had---had
8 chat---chatted 9 in---on 10 excited---exciting
How are you? Glad to see you have made some progress in Chinese learning and I’m writing to tell you something about our next lesson.
The lesson will be given from 3 pm to 5 pm on the afternoon of next Tuesday in the classroom 502. In the class, you will mainly learn Tang Poetry, which reflects traditional Chinese culture and is deeply loved by Chinese. You can feel the beauty of Chinese by learning Tang Poetry. You’d better make full preparations before class and have a brief understanding of the history of Tang Dynasty, which makes it easy for you to go through the class.
If there is anything that I can help you, please don’t hesitate to tell me. Looking forward to meeting you.
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