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Unit 13 People Lesson 2-3教学设计(北师大版必修5)

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Unit 13 Lesson 2 and 3
【教学目标】
1.学习并掌握重点词汇、句型;
2.会分析复杂结构的句子,正确理解句义;
3.提高学生的阅读能力。
【知识梳理】及【典型例题】
1. personality n.个性,性格
Childhood experience has a strong influence on forming personality.
童年经历对个性的形成有强大的影响。
Personal adj. 个人的,私人的;本人的,亲自的
Personally adv. 就个人而言
2. independent adj. 独立的
Although she is young, she is very independent.
虽然她很年轻,但是很独立。
He is always helping the people with disabilities to lead an independent life.
他一直在帮助那些有残疾的人过上独立的生活。
dependent adj.依赖的
depend v.依靠,依赖,随…而定(常与on/upon连用)
dependence n.依靠,依赖
independence n.独立,自立
3. sharp adj.敏锐的,锋利的 严厉的,急剧的
A journey should always keep a sharp mind.
新闻记者应该永远保持机敏的头脑。
You must be very careful with this sharp knife.
你用这把锋利的刀子时必须很小心。
a sharp rise in prices 价格的急剧上涨。
搭配:be sharp with sb.对某人刻薄/严厉
Keep a sharp eye on sb. 密切关注某人
He was very sharp with me when I was late.
我迟到了,他狠狠地训了我一通。
Teachers always keep a sharp eye on those naughty boys in class.
老师们在课上总是会密切关注那些淘气的男生。
Hardly had Sabrina finished her words when Albert said____, “Don’t be so mean ,”pointing a finger of warning at her.
A. dreadfully        B.guiltily
C.indirectly         D.sharply
4. characteristic n.(一般用复数)特点,特性
Honesty remains one of his characteristics.
诚实依然是他的性格特点之一。
characteristic:                      
(1) adj. 特有的;典型的  
     Sympathy is the feeling characteristic of mankind. 
     同情心是人类特有的感情。 
     It is characteristic of him to talk nonsense. 
     胡说八道是他的特征。 
(2) n. 特质;特出之处;特徵;特点  
     The characteristic I like best in him is his cheerfulness. 
     他的愉悦气质是我最喜欢的特点。 
     the body characteristics 
     身体特征 
     the chief characteristics 主要的特征

     the distinctive characteristics   特征
     the distinguishing characteristics of man 人类的特异性
     one's facial characteristics       面部特征
     the individual characteristics 个性
     a marked characteristic 显著特征
character:                
(1) n. 性格;品质  
the qualities which make a person different from another;moral nature 
     Sports help to train a person's character. 
     运动有助于锻炼人们的性格。 
     He seems to be a man of good character. 
     看来他是一个品格优良的人。 
(2) n. 人物;角色  
     a person in a book, play, etc. 
     Dr. Watson is a character in the Sherlock Holmes stories.
     华生医生是福尔摩斯探案故事中的一个人物。 
(3) n. 字体;记号  
a letter, figure, or sign used in writing or printing 
     The bell bears an inscription in Chinese characters.
5. desire n.渴望,欲望 v.渴望,想要
The artist played a piece of music at the audience’s desire.
这位艺术家应听众的要求演奏了一曲。
She desires for a breakthrough in her research.
她渴望自己的研究能够出现突破。
搭配:
Have a desire for sth./to do sth.渴望某物/做某事
at sb’s desire=at the desire of sb 应某人的要求
desire sth/to do sth.渴望某事/做某事
desire that…(从句谓语动词用“should+动词原形”表示虚拟,should可省略)
4. satisfaction n.满意,满足
The good news was a satisfaction to us all.
这则好消息令我们所有人都满意。
to one’s satisfaction 令人满意的是
with satisfaction 满意地
To her satisfaction, her daughter made great progress.
令她满意的是,她的女儿取得了很大的进步。
He smiled with satisfaction when he won the race.
他赢得赛跑后满意地笑了。
satisfy vt.使满足,使满意
satisfying adj.令人满意的  satisfied adj.感到满足的
satisfy sb.使某人满意
be satisfied with… 对…感到满意
I wasn’t satisfied with our treatment at that hotel, so I shall complain to the boss.
我不满意我们在那家旅馆受到的待遇,因此我要向旅馆老板投诉。
6. require vt.需要;要求;命令
These pets require a lot of care and attention.
这些宠物需要悉心照料。
They cannot choose but admit that our requirement is reasonable.
我们无法选择只能承认我们的要求是合理的。
Require sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事
sth. require(s) doing 某事需要做
require that… 要求…(从句用虚拟语气,即从句谓语动词用“should +do”,should 可省略)
They required us to work all night.
=They required that we (should)work all night.
他们要求我们通宵工作。
demand、request、 require的不同用法:
  1.如果demand主语是人时,则表示坚决要求,坚持要做某事;如果主语是物时,则指迫切需要。
  如果Request表示“恳求,请求”时,则指通过正式手续提出的要求,口气和缓,态度礼貌。如果Require表示按照法规、权利提出的要求或者命令,则指客观需要,含缺此不可之意。
  例句:Fertilizer is in great demand.肥料的需要量是很大的。
  She demanded an apology from them.她要求他们道歉。
  She has done all that is required by law.她已做了法律规定的一切。
  The situation requires that we should be there.形势需要我们呆在那儿。
  2.如果后面跟宾语从句时,从句后谓语动词则都要用虚拟语气,也就是should+原形动词或者动词原形。
  例句:The headmaster requested that each of us(should)go there at once.校长要求我们每一个人要马上到那儿去。
  The headmaster demanded that Mary(should)give a right answer.校长要求玛丽给一个正确的答案。
  3.request后面接sb. to do sth., demand后面接of sb. to do sth., 而require后接两者都可以。
  例句:Mr.White requested his son to leave here.怀特先生要求他的儿子离开这里。
  Mr.Green required his children to keep silent.格林先生要求他的学生保持安静。
  He demanded of me to open the gate.他要求我打开大门。
  4.如果require表示“需要”的意思,后面可接动词不定式或者动名词。接动词不定式时,要用不定式的被动形式,接动名词时,则要用动名词的主动形式(在这里表示被动意义)。
  例句:The baby requires to be looked after. =The baby needs/wants to be looked after. =The baby requires/needs/wants looking after.
  5.一般情况下,demand以事情作主语,而require的主语是人是物都可以。
  例句:This disease demands a long rest.这种病需要长时间静养。
  We require warm clothing for the winter.我们需要保暖的服装过冬。
  注意事项:
  ①如果require(of)sb用于被动语态,则of不可省。
  ②demand后接from sb或者of sb.
  ③demand后接不定式,单不接动名词。
7. 英语表示“非常可能”、“十有八九”等意思,可用probable/probably或likely。注意,likely既是形容词也是副词。
  probable只能用在It is probable that的句型中,而不能说We are probable to do sth。但likely既可用在It is likely that...,也可用在We are likely to do sth的句型中。例如:
  1.他很可能是忘了。
  It is probable that he forgot.
  2.他或许没听懂我的话。
  Probably, he didn't catch my mean-ing.
  3.她很可能被雨淋透了。
  It is likely that she got soaked through in the rain.
  注意:possible的概率小于probable,就像汉语中的“可能”、“大概”。possible同样也只能用于It is possible(for sb)to do sth的句型。例如:
  4.这事多半如此,不只是可能。
  It's probable, not only possible
What do you think is likely to happen? 你觉得可能会发生什么事情?
It’s quite likely that a decision will be made before the end of the year.很可能将要在年底以前做出决定。
possible的可能性最小, 指客观上有可能,往往含有 “希望很小”的意味。probable可能性最大,表示“很可能,十有八九”。  likely表示外表迹象表明的有可能。
下面两个句子可充分体现它们可能性大小的区别:
It’s possible but not likely/probable that he’ll come here next month.
他下月有可能来这里,但是不是很肯定。
It’s probable, not only possible. 这事多半如此, 不只是可能。
另外,这三个词中,只有likely还可以用人做主语。如: She is likely to go abroad .
1.likely常用于以下两种结构中:
1) sb/sth. is likely to do sth.
He is likely to come.他可能要来。
It isn’t likely to rain.不大像要下雨。
2) It is likely + that clause  :
It is likely that he will succeed. 他有可能成功。
2. possible  常用于以下结构中:
It is possible (for sb.) to do sth.
It is possible for the train to be late.
It is possible that…
It is possible that the train is late. 火车有可能晚点。
3. probable用法:同样不用人做主语。只用于下列句型:
It’s probable that clause…
It is probable that it will rain today. Bring your umbrella with you. 今天极有可能要下雨。带上雨伞吧。
注意:possible,与probable都一般不用人做主语。
例如:我们可以说:
It is possible for him to lend us the car.
It is possible /probable that he will lend us the car.
但是我们不说:
He is possible / probable to lend us the car.
8.tear n.泪,眼泪
Tears stood in her eyes.
她眼里涌出了泪水。
There were tears of joy in her eyes.
她眼睛里含着喜悦的泪花。
Wipe away your tears.
擦掉你的眼泪。
搭配:answer in tears 含泪作答
Dry one’s tears 擦干...的眼泪
be in tears 正哭着
burst into tears 突然哭起来
vt. & vi. 其他读音:
1. 撕, 扯; (使)分裂; 撕碎; 扯破; 戳破2. 猛然撕掉, 拔掉3. 飞跑;狂奔;疾驰
过去式:tore;过去分词:torn;现在分词:tearing;
1. The trader had been known to tear up a contract before the ink was dry where it had been sighed.
早就听说,这个商人常常是签字的墨迹未干就撕毁合同。
2. Tear off the rhetorical topdressing from his speech and you find there's very little solid content.
去掉他演讲中华丽的词藻,你会发现其中没什么实在内容。
3. Take the book from Alice, she will tear it.
把书从艾丽斯那拿开,她会撕了它的。
4. The police fired about50 tear gas grenades.
警察发射了约50枚催泪弹。
5. She shed crocodile tear over his death.
她为他的死而假哭了一场。
6. I didn't tear out the page. It just came away in my fingers.
我没有撕掉这页,它刚好在我手里脱落了。
9.fault
• n.
缺点,缺陷; 过错,责任; 故障; (猎狗的)失去嗅迹
• vt.
挑剔,找…的缺点; 批评; 做错,在…中出错; 产生断层
• vi.
找错误,挑剔; 变动从而产生断层
• 变形
复数: faults 过去式: faulted 过去分词: faulted 现在分词: faulting 第三人称单数: faults
1. The aircraft made an unscheduled landing after developing an electrical fault.
飞机由于发生电力故障而作了临时降落。
2. He could never accept that he had been at fault.
他怎么也无法承认是他的错。
3. I was disappointed whenever the cook found fault with my work.
每当厨师挑剔我干的活儿时,我都非常沮丧。
10. bleed
过去式:bled;   过去分词:bled;   现在分词:bleeding;
vi.
1. 流血
vt.
1. 勒索; 敲诈
vt. & vi.
1.  给(某人)放血2. 长期榨取(某人的钱)3.  放掉气体或水(以使某物运行正常);抽干 4.  散开;渗开
1. Then he stepped back and watched the wino bleed.
随后他后退几步,看着酒鬼已经流血。
2. These varices are prone to bleed.
静脉曲张有出血倾向。
3. The man is easily tearless, but when the achievement that interviews and write Long Qingxiu, I shed a tear not only, in the heart more resembling is to bleed.
男人是轻易不流泪的,但在采写龙清秀的事迹时,我不仅流了泪,心里更像是流血。
4. The siphuncle would draw water out of the connecting chambers and bleed in gasses thus keeping the creature buoyant in exactly the same manner as the modern Nautilus.
黄色是开朗和激励的颜色,它能令你有智慧去作出决定。它有生机,有能量,对恐惧和不稳定有好的帮助。
5. The boss tried to bleed his employees for every penny they had.
老板力图从雇工们身上榨取出每一分钱。
11. gone、lost、missing的区别:
gone表示“丢了,没了”,含一去不复返的意思,也可以表示“死了”,作表语或宾补,不可以作定语;lost表示“丢失”,含难以找回的意思,可作定语、表语或宾补;missing表示“失踪了,不见了”,强调某人物不在原处,可作定语、表语或宾补。
如:My fever(高烧)is gone,but I still have a cough.(发烧消退了,但我仍然咳嗽) 
The parents found the lost child at last.(家长终于找到了迷路的孩子)
My dictionary is missing.Who's taken it away?(我的字典不见了,谁拿走了?)
For more detailed information(详情)of the missing girls,please visit our website.(如果想知道失踪女孩们的详情,请访问我们的网站)
12.look
不及物动词、及物动词和连系动词。现将其用法归纳如下:
1. 用作不及物动词,意为“看,望,瞧”。
1)单独使用时,后不跟介词。如:
I looked but saw nothing.我看了,但什么也没看见。
Look! Here comes the bus. 瞧!汽车来了。
Look before you leap. 三思而后行。
2)和at连用。如:
The teacher is looking seriously at us.老师正严肃地看着我们。
Look at these pictures. How beautiful they are!看这些画,它们是多么漂亮啊!
3)和其它某些介词或副词连用:
(1) look after 照看,照料。如:He is old enough to look after himself.他年龄足够大,能照看自己。
(2) look for 寻找。如:I looked for you just now, but I didn’t find you.刚才我到处找你,但没有找到。
(3) look around 四下环顾;到处寻找。如:He looked around but he saw nobody.他四下环顾,但什么人也没看到。
(4) look back on回想,回顾。如:They often look back on the days they spent together. 他们常回顾他们在一起度过的日子。
(5) look down on看不起。如:Don’t look down on others.不要看不起别人。
(6) look forward to 盼望。如:We are looking forward to seeing you again.我们盼望再见到你。
(7) look into朝……里面看。如:He looked into the box, but he saw nothing.他朝箱子里面看了看,但没看到什么。
(8) look on...as把某人看作。如:We look on him as our friends.我们把他看作我们的朋友。
(9) look out当心。如:Look out! Don’t hit the tree. 当心!不要撞了树。
(10) look over仔细检查;翻阅。如:The doctor is looking him over. 医生正在给他做仔细检查。
(11) look through浏览;仔细检查;看穿。如:I have looked it through.我已把它仔细地看了一遍。
(12) look up抬头看;查;找出。如:He looked up and smiled at me.他抬起头,对我笑了笑。If there are words you don’t understand, look them up in the dictionary. 如果你有不认识的单词可以查词典。
2. 用作连系动词,意为“看起来”。
1)后跟形容词。如:You look well/fine/healthy.你看起来很健康。The teacher looks happy. 老师看上去很高兴。She looks pale. 她面色苍白。
2)后跟过去分词。如:You look tired; you’d better have a rest.你看上去很累,你最好休息一下。
3)后跟名词。如:He looks a nice, honest man.他看上去是个诚实的好人。
4) 后跟介词短语等。如:He looks in good health. 他看来十分健康。
3. 用作及物动词,意为“看,瞧,打量”等。如:He is looking me up and down.他上下打量着我。
14.练习
Sports should help a man to learn fairness, not only in games but also in and for life. If two teams play__1__game, one team must lose. If a dozen teams attend an athletic competition,__2__team will get the most points and all the__3__eleven teams will get__4__points. If a school team comes out last, that is no loss of face.__5__that team and that school must do is to admit that it__6__(lose). The only intelligent reaction__7__defeat must be: next year we will do our best to come out on top, because from now on our team  will devote__8__to a stricter course of training under competent instructors.
Lessons__9__(learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people. But even more__10__(value) are the lessons learned in extra—curricular activities in school: in speech, dramatic and musical contests, in “house” activities, and, especially, in the student council.
1. a 2.one 3. other 4. fewer 5.What
6. is lost 7. to 8. itself 9. learned 10. valuable
二、Correction 4(2014辽宁)
  假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。
  增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。
  删除:把多余的词用斜线()划掉。
  修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。
  注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;
  2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。
  Dear Jeremy and Alice,
  Although we’ve been delighted to have you as neighbors, we’re hoping to settle something that bothers to us. In a word, your dog—Cleo.
  We’ve called several time about Cleo’s early morning barking. It is difficult to understanding why she barks every minute she’s outside. The early morning barking have been disturbing us as we are often up all night with the baby. Beside, Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day. This morning she starts barking even before 5 o’clock. That is too much for us, considering how closely the houses are.
  We appreciate our apologies and goodwill, but we hope that you can figure a good way of settling the matter.
  Sincerely,
  Jack and Rose
1.第一段:去掉bothers后的to bother sb.打扰某人。
  2.第二段第一句:time→times 考查名词复数。several times好几次。
  3.第二段第二句:understanding→understand 根据it’s difficult to do sth.句型可知。
  4.第二段第三句:have→has 考查主谓一致。the early morning barking为单数,所以谓语动词也应为单数形式。
  5.第二段第四句:Beside→Besides 此处应为副词besides而不是介词beside。
  6.第二段第四句:average前的a→an 考查冠词。average为以元音音素开头的单词,所以应用冠词an。
  7.第二段第五句:starts→started 考查时态。因为是今天早晨发生的事情,所以用一般过去时。
  8.第二段第六句:closely→close 考查形容词。形容词close作表语。
  9.第三段:our→your 考查物主代词。
  10.第三段:在figure后加out 根据动词短语figure out(想出)可知答案
Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of mind; it is not rosy cheeks , red lips and supple knees, it is a matter of the emotions : it is the freshness ; it is the freshness of the deep springs of life. Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity of the appetite , for adventure over the love of ease. This often exists in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20. Nobody grows old merely by a number of years . We grow old by deserting our ideals. Years wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self –distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust. Whether 60 of 16, there is in every human being’s heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing childlike appetite of what’s next and the joy of the game of living . In the center of your heart and my heart there’s a wireless station : so long as it receives messages of beauty , hope ,cheer, courage 。

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