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2021年高考英语大纲规定的24个语法梳理(一)

来源:会员上传 日期:2021-01-11 09:15:34 作者:





★ 可数名词及其单复数
 
可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。指一个人或一件事物时,用单数形式;指两个或多个人或事物时用复数形式。
 
使用可数名词单数时,一定要注意加不定冠词a/an。
 
(复数变化记忆口诀)
单数变复数,规则要记住;
特殊有几处,高考常常考。
 
名词由单数形式变成复数形式的规则如下:
 
1一般的名词词尾加 -s 
如:book → books
room → rooms
house → houses
day → days
 
2以 s,ss,ch,sh,x 结尾的名词,在词尾加 -es
如:bus → buses
glass → glasses
watch → watches
dish → dishes
box → boxes
 
3以"辅音字母+y"结尾的名词,要先将 y 改为 i 再加 -es
如:city → cities
body → bodies
factory → factories
 
4以 f/fe 结尾的名词,要将 f/fe 改为 v 再加-es
如:half → halves
leaf → leaves
knife → knives
wife → wives
 
5特例 [悄悄话:特例常常考,规律要记住]
1. man → men
woman → women
policeman → policemen
(规律:man → men)
 
2. tomato → tomatoes
potato → potatoes
[规律:有生命的加-es,无生命的加-s ]
 
3. foot → feet
tooth → teeth
[规律:oo变成ee]
 
4. sheep,Chinese,Japanese 单、复数同形。
[规律:单复同形:变复数时词形不可变]
 
5. people 表示复数意义,要求谓语动词用复数;people加上-s以后,peoples通常指“多个民族”。
[规律:集体名词只做复数:people很特殊,谓语用复数]


 



★ 不可数名词
 
1. 不可数名词以数目来计算,不能分成个体。没有单复之分,前面不用不定冠词a/an,表达数量用:数词+(量词)+名词。
如:a piece of papaer
 
2. 不可数名词做主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。
 
3. 特殊:
① 不可数名词一般无复数形式,部分物质名词表示不同类别时,可用复数形式。如,fishes,newspapers,waters,snows等
 
② 有些抽象名词也常用复数形式变为可数的具体事物。如,times时代,works著作,difficulties困难等。


 



★专有名词
 
名词可分为专有名词和普通名词,专有名词指特定的或独一无二的人或物(人名、地名、国家名)。
 
1专有名词首字母大写
专有名词是表示人、地方、事物等特有的名词,它的第一个字母要大写。
如:
 
 
2单词大小写不同,词义不同
有些单词字母的大小写不同,词义也不一样。
如:
 
 
3普通名词的特定含义
普通名词表示一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名称。
如: worker, camera, steel等。
 
4专有名词的分类
英语中根据专有名词前是否带冠词可分为两类:
 
1. 零冠词,是由专有名词+普通名词组成,往往为并列关系。
如:Yale University,Beijing Railway Station
 
2. 定冠词,由形容词+普通名词组成。
如:the United States,the Great Wall
 
3. 一般来讲,专有名词前面不用定冠词the,但江河海洋,山脉群岛地理名称前要用定冠词。
如:the Yangtse River(长江)
 
4. 由两个以上的普通名词组成的专有名词前,一般要用定冠词。


 



★ 名词所有格
 
英语中有些名词可以加“'s”来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。
 
(名词所有格记忆口诀)
名词所有格,表物是谁的。
若为生命词,要加“'s”,
词尾若有 s,仅把逗号加;
并列名词后,各自和共有,
前者分别加,后者最后加;
若为无生命词,of所有格,
前后须倒置,此是硬规则。
 
1单数名词词尾加“'s”,复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加“'s”
如:the boy's bag男孩的书包,men's room男厕所。
 
2若名词已有复数词尾-s,只加“'”
如:the workers' struggle工人的斗争。
 
3凡不能加“'s”的名词,都可以用"名词+of+名词"的结构来表示所有关系
如:the title of the song歌的名字。
 
4在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词
如:the barber's理发店。
 
5如果两个名词并列,并且分别有“'s”,则表示"分别有"只有一个“‘s’”,则表示“共有”
如:John's and Mary's rooms(两间) 
John and Mary's room(一间)
 
6复数名词 和短语的所有格通常是在最后的中心词后加“'s”
如:a month or two's absence


 
 


冠词(Article)是一种虚词,在句子中不重读,本身不能独立使用,只能放在名词前帮助说明名词所指的人或事物,它是英语词性中最小的一类,只有三个,一种是不定冠词(Indefinite Article),一种是定冠词(Definite Article)。此外也有些特定场合不用冠词,即通常所称的零冠词(Zero Article)。
 
1冠词a / an 的基本用法
 
(定冠词a/an用法口诀)
某人某物属某类,
一人一物指全体;
某人某物不具体,
数量名词前表“每一”
 
⒈ 基本用法
 
 
⒉ a / an 的区别
 
a 用在辅音音素开头的单数可数名词或字母前,an 用在元音音素开头的单数可数名词或字母前。如 a book , an orange , an egg
注意:
① u发音为 / ju:/ 时,单词前用a . 如:a usual boy;a university;a unit;a useful book;注意另外两个特殊词: a one-leg table ; a European
② 常见辅音字母不发音的单词有:an honest boy;an hour;an honor
 
2定冠词 the 的用法
 
 
 
3不用冠词的情况
 
 
 
注意:
⒈ 中国的传统节日前一般加“the”
如:the Mid-Autumn Day 中秋节;the Spring Festival ;
 
⒉ 具体某年的季节前一般加“the”
in the winter of 2009在2009年的冬天
 
如:⒊ 但三餐饭前如有形容词修饰时,可以用冠词
如:have a nice breakfast吃一顿美味的早餐
 
4高考常见冠词形式
 
 
 
5冠词的活用
 
 
 
 
冠词和名词
 
 
I.单项填空
1.【2019·江苏卷】26.Nowadays the ___________ for travelling is shifted from shopping to food and scenery.
A. priority B. potential C. proportion D. pension
【答案】A
【解析】考查名词辨析。句意:当今,旅行的重点从购物转变成了品尝美食和欣赏风景。A. priority优先;优先权;B. potential潜在的,可能的;C. proportion比例,占比;D. pension退休金,抚恤金。故选A。
2.【2019·天津卷】7.We can observe that artificial intelligence has already made a(n) ___________on our lives in many ways.
A. statement B. impact
C. impression D. judgment
【答案】B
【解析】考查名词词义辨析。句意:我们能够看到人工智能在许多方面已经对我们的生活产生了强烈的影响。 statement“陈述说明”;impact“强烈的影响,冲击力”;impression“印象,感想”;judgement“判断力判断”。故选B。
3.【2018·天津】6. The__________ that there is life on other planets in the universe has always inspired scientists to explore the outer space.
A. advice             B. order
C. possibility            D. invitation
【答案】C
【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:宇宙中其它星球上存在生命这种可能性总是激励科学家们去探索外部空间。A. advice建议;B. order命令;C. possibility可能性;D. invitation邀请。故选C。
点睛:本题考查名词辨析。名词和动词及短语的考查是高考重点考查的知识点。本题语法上是一个同位语从句,从句that there is life on other planets in the universe是来解释说明前面所选择的名词。根据常识可以判断,宇宙中其它星球上存在生命只是一种可能性,目前无法证明,从而选出正确答案。
4.【2018·江苏】32. Try to understand what’s actually happening instead of acting on the _______ you’ve made.
A. assignment           B. association
C. acquisition           D. assumption
【答案】D
【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:试着去理解实际发生的事情,而不是按照你所做的假设行事。A. assignment分配;B. association交往;C. acquisition获得;D. assumption假设。故选D。
点睛:本题考查名词辨析。名词考查是高考重点考查的知识点。本题抓住句中的关键词actually happening实际发生和instead of而不是,可知是假设,从而选出正确答案。
5.【2016·天津】10. The weather forecast says it will be cloudy with a slight _____ of rain later tonight.
  A. effect         B. sense        C. change      D.  chance   
【答案】D
【解析】试题分析:句意:天气预报说今天会是多云,后半夜可能有雨。A.影响;B.感觉;C.改变;D.机会,可能性。故选D。
考点:考查名词辨析。
6.【2016·浙江】2.______prize for the winner of the competition is ______two-week holiday in Paris.
A. The ; 不填      B. A ; 不填     C. A ; the      D. The ; a
【答案】D
【解析】句意:这个比赛获胜者的奖品是一个巴黎的两个星期的假期。第一空填the,是特指“获胜者的奖品”,用定冠词,第二空是泛指“一个两周的假期”,用不定冠词a。故选A。
7.【2015·四川卷】  Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be ________  Beethoven.
A. a                    B. an       
C. the                  D.不填
【答案】A 
【解析】此处表示“下一个贝多芬”,应使用不定冠词。句意:布赖恩在谱曲上有天赋,他很可能成为下一个贝多芬。
【考点定位】考查冠词。
【名师点睛】考查冠词。冠词是高考英语中的难点和重点,考生在冠词试题上失分较多,主要是缺乏语感,对一些知识点掌握不够透彻。本题中首先根据Beethoven排除选项B,因为不定冠词an用于以元音音素开头的单词前。通常情况下人名前是不加冠词的,但是如果指一个像某个名人的人时,在这个人名前加不定冠词。
8. 【2015·陕西卷】________more learned a man is,________ more modest he usually becomes.
A. The; the                 B. A; a
C. The; a                  D. A; the
【答案】A 
【解析】此处冠词构成“the +比较级…, the +比较级…”句型,表示“越……就越……”。故选A。句意:一个人学的东西越多,他就会越谦虚。
考查冠词。
9.【2015·浙江卷】  Jane's grandmother had wanted to write  ________ children's book for many years, but one thing or another always got in ________  way.
A. a; /               B. the; the
C. /; the             D. a; the
【答案】D 
【解析】句意:简的奶奶很多年来一直想写一本(关于)孩子的书,但总是被这事或那事耽搁了。第一空a children's book中的a表示“一本”,所以用不定冠词a;而第二空涉及的in the way是固定用法,表示“挡道,阻碍”,所以用定冠词the。综合以上内容可知选D项。本题的第一空有些考生可能会错选the,认为是特定情况,但要注意the表示确切的某地或某时的状况,而此处没有限定children's book的相关信息。
10. 【2015·重庆卷】I just heard________ bank where Dora works was robbed by________ gunman wearing a mask.
A. the; /   B. a; /   C. the; a   D. a; the
【答案】C                
【解析】考查冠词。句意:我刚刚听说朵拉工作的那家银行被一个带面具的持枪人给抢劫。第一个空表示朵拉工作的那家银行,可知表示特指,用the;第二空表示一个带面具的持枪人表示泛指,用a。   
     
II.语法填空
1.【2019·新课标I卷】Of ___69___  nineteen recognized polar bear subpopulations, three are declining, six are stable, one is increasing, and nine lack enough data.
【答案】the
【解析】考查定冠词。此处为特指,意为“在已知的19个北极熊亚种群中”,故填the。
2.【2019·浙江卷】Everybody wears___57___ same style of clothes.
【答案】the
【解析】考查冠词。句意:每个人都穿相同风格的衣服。same是形容词,意思是“相同的”,常与the连用修饰名词。故填the。
3. 【2019·新课标II卷】When we got a call saying she was short-listed,we thought it was___69___ joke.
【答案】a
【解析】a 考查冠词。根据前面We don't have any idea who put grandma forward我们不知道谁提名了祖母,以及she was short-listed接到电话说她入围了,开始我们以为这是一个玩笑,a joke一个玩笑,故填a。
4.【2019·全国I】In recent years some Inuit people in Nunayut have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a ___66___ (believe) that populations are increasing.
【答案】belief
【解析】考查词性转换。由其前不定冠词和其后that引导的同位语从句可知,空格处需填名词形式。故填belief。
5. 【2019·全国III】When they were free from work,they invited us to local events and let us know of an interesting ___66___(compete)to watch,together with the story behind it.
【答案】competition
【解析】考查词性转换。形容词interesting应该修饰名词,而且空前有不定冠词an,故填单数名词competition。
6. 【2019·浙江6】Other American studies showed no ___64___(connect) between uniforms and school performance.
【答案】connection/connections
【解析】考查名词。根据no可知,后面需要connect的名词形式,语意表示“联系、连接”,故填connection/connections。
7. 【2019·北京】No matter what you like to do,there is a way to get involved in various___6___(activity) on Earth Day. You can plant a tree,make a meal with locally grown vegetables,or save power—the possibilities are endless.
【答案】activities   
【解析】考查名词的复数形式,因为前面的形容词是various“各种各样的”,因此用名词的复数形式activities。
8.【2018·全国II】Diets have changed in China — and so too has its top crop. Since 2011,the country has grown more corn than rice. Corn production has jumped nearly 125 percent over ___62___ past 25 years, while rice has increased only 7 percent.
【答案】the
【解析】考查冠词。句意:玉米产量在过去25年里增长了近125%,而大米只增长了7%。故是特指在过去的25年里。故填the。
9.【2018·全国III】I'm not sure which is more frightened, me or the female gorilla(大猩猩)that suddenly appears out of nowhere. I'm walking on a path in the forest in the Central African Republic. Unexpectedly, I'm face-to-face with the gorilla, who begins screaming at____62____ top of her lungs.
【答案】the
【解析】考查冠词。此处为固定短语at the top of,此处表示以最大的肺活量喊叫。
10.【2018·全国I】 Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014 which showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all ___67___(cause).
【答案】causes
【解析】考查名词复数。一项研究表明,仅仅每天5到10分钟的跑步,就能减少各种原因的心脏病和早亡。根据句意用复数形式。故填causes。
11. 【2018·全国II】This switch has decreased ___66___ (pollute) in the country's major lakes and reservoirs and made drinking water safer for people.
【答案】pollution
【解析】考查词性转换。句意:这一转变减少了中国较大的湖泊和水库的污染,使人们的饮用水更加安全。has decreased后跟名词作宾语,故填pollution。
12. 【2018·全国III】My name is Mireya Mayor. I'm a ___66___(science)who studies animals such as apes and monkeys.
【答案】scientist
【解析】考查名词。根据语境可知,我是一名科学家。scientist科学家。
13. 【2018·浙江】Few people I know seem to have much desire or time to cook. Making Chinese ___56___(dish) is seen as especially troublesome.
【答案】dishes
【解析】考查名词。此处指中国菜,表示泛指应该用名词复数,故填dishes。
14. 【2018·浙江】Researchers have found that there is a direct link between the increase in food eaten outside the home and the rise in ___64___(weigh) problems.
【答案】weight
【解析】考查名词。此处指体重问题,用名词修饰problems,故填weight。
15.【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】As 65.________ result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing.
【答案】a 
【解析】考查冠词。固定短语as a result表示“结果是”。结果是,人们将吃更多的食物去弥补损失的东西。故填a。
16.【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】This included digging up the road, laying the track and then building a strong roof over 64.________ top.
【答案】the 
【解析】考查冠词。此处特指铁轨上方的顶部工程。
17.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ】She looks like any other schoolgirl, freshfaced and full of life. Sarah Thomas is looking forward to the challenge of her new Alevel course. But unlike her school friends, 16yearold Sarah is not spending halfterm resting. Instead, she is earning £6,500 a day as  62.________ model in New York.
【答案】a 
【解析】考查冠词。根据句意和语境可知,萨拉只是纽约众多模特中的一个,是泛指;而且model的第一个音素是辅音音素,故用不定冠词a。
18.【2017·浙江卷6月考】For Pahlsson, its return was 65.________ wonder.
【答案】a 
【解析】考查冠词。此处a wonder表示“一个奇迹”,所以需要不定冠词a。
19.【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】There has been a recent trend in the food service industry towards lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) as a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side 62.________ (effect) such as overweight and heart disease—the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.
【答案】effects 
【解析】考查名词复数。分析语境可知作者表达的意思是“一些意料之外的副作用”,根据前文的some可知副作用有很多,故填effects。
20.【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】In 1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometres and allowed people to avoid terrible 61.________ (crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and from work.
【答案】crowds 
【解析】考查名词复数。伦敦人口众多,导致路面交通拥堵,于是修建地铁。用crowds这一复数形式,表示不断涌现的人群,用来形容人口稠密。
21. 【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】This development was only possible with the 69.________ (introduce) of electricpowered engines and lifts.
【答案】introduction 
【解析】考查名词。该词在此作with的宾语,意思是“引入方法、手段”等。由于其后带有介词of,故只能用introduction。
22.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ】She is determined to carry on with her 66.________  (educate).
She has turned down several 67.________ (invitation) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her studies.
【答案】education 
【解析】考查名词。前面是形容词性物主代词her,故用名词形式。
【答案】invitations 
【解析】考查名词复数。根据句意“她拒绝了几个邀请”可知,此处需要填名词,而且invitation是可数名词,前面有several修饰,故用复数形式。
23.【2017·浙江卷6月考】Last October, while tending her garden in Mora, Sweden, Lena Pahlsson pulled out a handful of small 56.________ (carrot) and was about to throw them away.
【答案】carrots 
【解析】考查名词。根据a handful of可知,应该有一把小胡萝卜,所以用carrot的复数形式。
24.【2016·全国新课标II】。Then, handle the most important tasks first so you’ll feel a real sense of  42 (achieve). Recent  46  (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly.
【答案】achievement
【解析】考查名词。横线前面有介词of,横线上要使用名词achievement作为of的宾语。句意:首先处理重要的事情,那么你会有成就感。
【答案】studies
【解析】考查名词单复数。本句的谓语动词是show,说明主语是复数名词studies。
25.【2016·全国新课标III】阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the    48    (develop) of chopsticks.
【答案】development
【解析】考查词性转换。the+名词+of,意为“……的……”,这里指“筷子的发展”,故填development。
 
III.短文改错
1.【2019·新课标I卷·短文改错】Suddenly football feel just in front of me but almost hit me.
【答案】 Suddenly  a football fell just in front of me and almost hit me.
【解析】考查冠词。名词football为可数名词,前边需要有限定词。这里football第一次出现,故在football前加a;考查连词。句意:突然一个足球落在我前边并且差点打到我。
2.【2019·新课标III卷·短文改错】Each of my cafes will have a different theme and an unique style.
【答案】 an→a
【解析】考查冠词。unique为辅音音素发音的单词,用不定词时需用a。故将an改为a。
3.【2019·新课标I卷·短文改错】All the football player on the playground cheered loudly, saying that I had a talent for football.
【答案】player改为players。
【解析】考查名词的数。player(运动员)为可数名词,此时all(所有的)后需要用player的复数形式。故将player改为players。
4. 【2019·新课标II卷·短文改错】Since I was a kid, I`ve considered different job I would like to do.
【答案】job改为jobs
【解析】考查名词。本句中的different表示“不同的”,后面的名词job应该使用复数形式,故job改为jobs。
5. 【2019·新课标III卷·短文改错】I wish to have a chain of cafes in many different city.
【答案】city → cities
【解析】考查名词的数。many修饰可数名词的复数。故将city改为cities。
6.【2018·全国I】During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents.
【答案】countryside前加the  
【解析】考查冠词。去年寒假,我和父亲去乡下拜访爷爷奶奶。此处特指去的是乡下,故加定冠词the。
6.【2018·全国II】As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watch them, my parents would not let me.
【答案】把the改为a。
【解析】考查冠词。这里表示“作为一个孩子”,a用在表示泛指的单数名词前,the表示特指。故把the改为a。
8.【2018·全国III】I had done myself homework but I was shy.
【答案】myself改成my,或改为定冠词the
【解析】考查代词错误。句意:我已经完成了自己的作业。表示“我的”用my不用myself,或改为定冠词the也可以。
9.【2018·全国I】Last winter when I went there again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken.
【答案】chicken改成chickens  
【解析】考查名词复数。他们拥有一个大的独立住宅,还养了许多只鸡。根据前文的dozens of可知,其后用名词复数形式。
10. 【2018·全国II】When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. After supper, we would play card games of all sort in the sitting room.
【答案】考查名词。
【解析】名词作定语,往往表明被修饰名词的时间、地点、类别、目的或用途、材料或来源等。名词所有格作定语则强调与被修饰的词的所有关系或表示逻辑上的谓语关系。此处表示“星期五晚上”,并不是所有关系,故把Friday’s改为Friday。
【答案】考查名词单复数。
【解析】all表示三者或三者以上,后用名词复数。故把sort改为sorts。
11. 【2018·全国III】The classroom is a place for learning and that include leaning from textbooks, and mistake as well.
【答案】include改成includes
【解析】考查主谓一致。that作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数includes。
【答案】mistake改成mistakes
【答案】考查名词单复数。错误不是一个,所以要用复数mistakes。
12.【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】I still remember how hard first day was.
【答案】first前加the或my 
【解析】考查冠词或物主代词。“我”依然记得第一天是多么艰难。句中特指开始学驾驶的第一天,所以在first前加上the,也可以加上my。my first day表示“我(学驾驶)的第一天”。故在first前加the或my。
13.【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】They live far from the school,and it takes them about a hour and a half to go to work every day.
【答案】第一个a改为an或one 
【解析】考查冠词用法。名词hour虽然是辅音字母开头,但发音为元音,用an或one均可。
14.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ】Around me in picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments.
【答案】picture前加this/the 
【解析】考查限定词。根据语境可知这张照片是上文提到的照片,是特指,故需要用限定词this/the修饰。
15.【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】The instructor kept repeating the word, “Speed up!” “Slow down!” “Turning left!”
【答案】word改为words 
【解析】考查名词复数。教练一直喊“加速”“减速”“左转”。word表示某人说的话时是可数名词,故将word改为words。
16.【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】Beside,they often get some useful informations from the Internet.
【答案】informations改为information 
【解析】考查不可数名词。information为不可数名词。
17.【2016·全国新课标I】短文改错(10 分)
My uncle says that he never dreams of becoming rich in the short period of time.
【答案】the →a 考查冠词。
【解析】固定短语:in a short time在短时间内。
18.【2016·全国新课标II】短文改错(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分)
But in that case, we will learn little about world.
【答案】about后加the 考查定冠词。
【解析】在英语中定冠词the通常表示特指,本句中the修饰world表示特指这个世界。
19.【2016·全国新课标I】My uncle tells me that the key to his success is honest.
【答案】honest→ honesty
【解析】考查名词。此处是指诚实是他成功的秘诀,用名词形式。 而形容词honest意思是“诚实的”,是指人的性格特点。 
20.【2016·全国新课标II】If we go on a trip abroad, we can broaden you view and gain knowledges we cannot get from books.
【答案】 knowledges改为knowledge
【解析】考查名词单复数。本句中名词knowledge是不可数名词,没有复数形式。
 
 
 
 

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