当前位置:天添资源网  >>  教案学案  >>  英语教案  >>  高三下册英语教案 文章内容页

2021年高考英语大纲规定的24个语法梳理(二)

来源:会员上传 日期:2021-01-11 09:14:39 作者:


★ 人称代词
 
 
1人称代词的用法
 
⒈ 人称代词作主语,用主格。
如:We love our country.
我们热爱我们的祖国。
 
2. 人称代词作宾语,用宾格。
如:Winnie is a nice girl.We all like her.
温妮是个好姑娘。我们都喜欢她。
 
⒊ 人称代词在口语中,用宾格。
如:If I were her,I would stay.
要是我是她,我就留下来。
 
2人称代词的宾格代替主格的几种场合
 
⒈ 在日常生活中,人称代词作表语时,常用代词的宾格。
如:A:Who is knocking at the door?谁在敲门呀?
B:Its me.是我。
 
⒉ 口语中,当人称代词孤立地用于不带谓语的句子中作主语时,常用代词的宾格。
如:A:I don't want to go to the theater tonight.今晚我不想去剧院。
B:Me neither.我也不想去。
A:I would like to stay here for another week.我想在这里再呆一周。
B:Me too.我也是。
 
⒊ 在带as和than的比较级后面,许多场合下用代词的宾格。
如:She knows me as well as him.她像了解他一样了解我。
He is taller than me.他比我高。
 
⒋ 口语中,当人称代词用于带有强烈感情色彩的句子中作主语且其后不带宾语时,多用代词的宾格。
如:A:You ought to do it at once.你应该马上做。
B:What?Me!什么?我!
 
3多个人称代词并列时的顺序
 
在英语中如果出现多个人称代词,其排列的顺序主要有如下几种情况:
 
⒈ 单数的场合:you+he/she +I
如:You,he and I will go shopping tomorrow.
你,他和我明天将去购物。
 
⒉ 复数的场合:we +you +they
如:We,you and they are all Chinese.
我们,你们和他们都是中国人。
 
⒊ 男女两性并列场合:he+she
如:He and she don't agree with me.
他和她不同意我的看法。
 
⒋ 承认错误或承担责任时:I +he/she+you
如:I and he are to blame for the accident.
我和他应为这次事故承担责任。
 
⒌ You and I是固定结构,即使是在承认过失时,词序也不变。
如:You and I are to blame.
我和你应为此负责。
 
4he和she的特殊用法(考纲之外拓展部分)
he 可指代雄性动物或庞大而又威猛之物。
she可指代雌性动物或柔弱,优美之物,也可代表拟人化说法中的国家,月亮,汽车,轮船等无生命的东西,以表达其喜爱或亲切之情。
如:The fierce tiger carme at the monkey,but he missed heitiger,her 指monkey)凶猛的老虎向猴子扑来,可没扑到。
China will always do what she has promised to do.中国将始终履行自己的诺言。
The moon loses her brilliance when the sun makes his appearance.太阳一出来,月亮就失去了她的光辉。
She was Titanic,a ship which was said never to sink.她就是泰坦尼克号,据说是一艘永不沉没的船。
 
5报刊的编辑和文章的作者,在发表观点时,常用we代替I(同样地,用our代替my)
如:We believe that China will still make greater progress.我们相信中国将会有更大的发展。
In our opinion this is the best film of the year.我们认为这是今年最好的一部电影。
 
6we,you,they有时超出人称的区别,都可以泛指一般人,指“人们”,单数用he
如:We never know the worth of the well till it is dry.失去了才知道可贵。
You can't live without air and water离开空气和水,人就无法生存。
They say theirs going to be another good harvest this year.人们说今年又将是个丰收年。
He laughs best who laughs last.谁笑到最后谁笑的最好。
 
7it的用法
 
⒈ 指刚提到过的事物,以避免重复。
如:A:When did the letter come?这封信什么时候送来的?
B:It delivered this morning.今天早上送来的。
 
⒉ 指未知性别的婴儿或孩子。
如:What a beautiful baby,is it a boy?多漂亮的宝宝呀,是男孩吗?
 
⒊ 指不明身份的人。
如:A:Who is it knocking at the door?谁在敲门?
B:It might be the postman.可能是邮递员。
 
⒋ 指时间或季节。
如:It is ten o'clock.现在是十点钟。
It is late autumn.现在已是深秋了。
 
⒌ 指天气,环境。
如:It's raining hard outside.外面雨下得正大。
It is noisy in here.这里很嘈杂。
 
⒍ 指距离。
如:It is half an hour's walk to the city centre.走到市中心只需半小时。
 
⒎ 用于形式主语或形式宾语。
简单句:It is hard to learn English well.(it做形式主语,真正主语是learn English)
I find it hard to learn English well.(hard为宾语补足语,语义上的补充)(it做形式宾语,真正宾语是learn English)
复合句:I find(that)it is hard to learn English well宾语从句)(主句是I find……,系表为it is引导的从句)
 
⒏ 用于强调结构中,不作任何成分
注意:在强调结构中,不能强调谓语部分。
It is/was...that/who...
如:The students are learning grammar in the classroom now.
→It is the students who are learning grammar in the classroom now.
→It is grammar that the students are learning in the classroom now.
→It is in the classroom that the students are learning grammar now.
→It is now that the students are learning grammar in the classroom.
 
⒐ 用来代替上文提到过的句子。
this上文发生过的,下文要说的事。(通常)
that 只能指代上文说过的一个名词。
it通常指代上文的一句话。
如:You saved my life,I never forget it.
He bought me a shirt.I like it.
He bought me a shirt.I like that.
 
⒑ It常用的固定句型:
① It takes sb.to do…某人用多长时间做某事
如:It took the man a week to mend our roof.这些人花了一周时间修好我们的屋顶。
② It's(about/high)time that should...是该做某事的时侯了
如:It's (about/high)time that we should take action.该是采取行动的时候了。
③ It's the+序数词+time(that)..have + v-ed 第几次做某事了
如:It is the third time that he has failed the driving test.这是他第三次没能通过驾驶考试
④ It's...since...从..已(多长时间了)
如:It is five years since he stopped smoking.
他戒烟五年了。
⑤ It was not.before..;It won't be long before.用不了多长时间某动作发生了;过不了多久某动作将要发生
如:It was not long before they arrived. It won't be long before he returns from abroad.没过多久他们就到了。不久以后他们就要回国。


 



★ 物主代词
 
 
 
 
 
1形容词性物主代词相当于形容词,放在名词前作定语
 
如:It's not my computer.那不是我的电脑。
She turned away her eyes.她把目光移开。
Is this your coat?这是你的大衣吗?
 
⒈ 形容词性物主代词后可加own表示强调,意为“自己的,完全属于自己的”。
如:Monica has her own computer.莫妮卡有自己的电脑。
I won't believe anything unless I see it with my own eyes.除非我亲眼看见,否则我不会相信任何事情。
 
⒉ 形容词性物主代词常用来构成固定短语,此时代词不可缺少。
try ones luck碰运气
in ones opinion依某人的观点
 
2名词性物主代词相当于名词,不能用于名词之前
名词性物主代词相当于形容词性物主代词加上前面所提到的名词,其功能如下:
 
⒈ 作主语:
This is not my dictionary. Mine is lent to Lucy.这不是我的字典,我的借给露西了。
 
⒉ 作宾语:
Every person showed his ticket and I showed mine.每个人都出示了票,我也出示了我的。
 
⒊ 作表语:
This camera is mine and that is you.这架照相机是我的,那是你的。
 
⒋ 与of连用构成双重所有格作定语:
I am a great admirer of yours.我是你的一位崇拜者。


 



★ 反身代词
 
 
反身代词表示动作对象是发出者本身。
 
1反身代词的用法
 
⒈ 作宾语
反身代词作宾语表示动作的承受者就是动作的执行者自己。
如:I hope you will enjoy yourselves on the trip.我希望你们旅途玩得愉快。
The little boy can dress himself now.那个小男孩现在能自己穿衣服了。
 
⒉ 作表语
在be和其他系动词如feel,look,seem之后,反身代词可以用来描述感觉,情绪和状态。
如:I am not feeling myself today.今天我感觉有点不舒服。
The poor girl in the picture is myself.照片上这个可怜的小女孩就是我。
 
⒊ 作同位语
反身代词在句中作名词或代词的同位语,用来加强其语气,常位于名词或代词后,作主语的同位语时也可位于句尾。
如:I want to see Bob himself.我想见鲍勃本人。
Mary worked out the problem herself.玛丽自己做出了这道题。
 
2常用的反身代词短语
 
devote oneself to致力于
enjoy oneself 玩得高兴
dress oneself 自己穿衣
come to oneself恢复知觉
help oneself to随便吃,随便用
hide oneself把自己藏起来
teach oneself 自学
lose oneself 迷路
by oneself 亲自(独自地)
talk to oneself 自言自语
excuse oneself 自我辩解
be not oneself身体不舒服
for oneself 替自己,为自己
in oneself本身
between ourselves 私下说的话(不可告诉别人)
among themselves他们之间
to oneself供自己使用
 
3有时,用形容词将反身代词分开
如:I am still my old self我还是原来的我。
I'll put my humble self at your service.鄙人愿意听候您的吩咐。


 



★ 指示代词
 
1this,that,these,those的用法
 
⒈ 表示近指和远指
this,these往往指时间或空间较近的人或物;that,those可指时间或空间较远的人或物。
如:This gift is for you and that one is for your brother.这件礼物是你的,那件是你弟弟的。
I love these books but I dislike those ones.我喜欢这些书,但不喜欢那些。
注意:英国人打电话时,this指自己,that指对方。
如:Hello,this is Allan.Who is that speaking?喂,你好!我是艾伦,你是哪位?
 
⒉ 指刚提到过的或将要提到的事
①指刚提到过的事情或已经完成的事情用that。
如:Little George broke the vase,but he didn't admit it and that was very annoying.小乔治打碎了花瓶,自己还不承认,真是太气人了。
②指即将要发生或将要提到的事情用this.
如:I want to know this was Miss Tones here the whole moming?我想知道的是,琼斯小姐整个上午都在这里吗?
③ that,those常常用来代替上文提到过的名词,以避免重复。
④ that 指代不可数名词或可数名词的单数。
如:Life today is much better than that in the old days.指现在的生活比过去好多了。
⑤ those 指代可数名词复数。
如:The days in summer are longer than those in winter.夏天的白天比冬天的白天长。
 
⒊ this,that还可用作副词,意为“这么”“那么”。修饰形容词或副词,其用法与so类似。
如:She has never been this late for school before.她以前上学从没有这么晚过。
She is too young to walk that far.她太小,走不了那么远。
 
⒋ 与表示时间的名词搭配。
①this 与有些名词连用表示“目前的具体时间”
this morning 今天早晨
this aftermoon今天下午
this evening今天晚上
this week 本周
this month这个月
this spring今年春天
②that 与某些名词连用表示“过去的具体时间”
that morming 那天早上
that afternoon 那天下午
that evening 那天晚上
that week 那周
that month 那个月
that spring那年春天
③these 与某些名词连用表示“与目前相关的一段时间”
these days如今,目前,这些天
these years 这些年
these months 这些月
those与某些名词连用表示“与过去相关的一段时间”。
those days 那些日子
those years 那些年
those months那些月
 
2指示代词在句中所作得成分
 
⒈ 主语:
如:This is what I want to emphasize.这就是我想强调的。
 
⒉ 宾语:
如:Better take those with you.最好把那些带着。
 
⒊ 表语:
如:My idea is this.我的想法是这样的。
 
⒋ 定语:
如:What shall I do with these flower这些花怎么办?


 



★ 不定代词
 
不指明代替任何特定名词或形容词的代词叫不定代词。不定代词表示某种程度和各种类型的不确定意义,它们在逻辑意义上是数量词,具有整体或局部意义。
 
1简单不定代词
1. one的用法
one 指代可数名词,既可指人,也可指物。
可单独使用,也可放在单数可数名词前作定语。
one→ones(复数)
→one's(名词所有格)
→oneself(反身代词)
反义疑问句:one 正式语体;you 口语
① 单独使用,泛指“人”“一个人”“人们”。
(此时句中也可以出现one's或oneself与之呼应)
如:One often fails to see their own faults.人往往看不见自己的缺点。
One should do their best at all times.一个人无论如何都应尽最大努力。
② 表示具体的“一个人”或“一个事物”
如:He is not one who is easy to work with.他不是容易合作的人。
This is the one you looking for.这就是你要找的那一个。
注意:当one前面有形容词修饰时,形容词前必须有冠词或代词。
如:Her new car goes faster than her old one.她的新汽车比旧的跑得快。
I don't like this green peach. Please give me a red one.我不喜欢这个绿桃子,请给我一个红的。
③ 代替上文已出现过的单数可数名词或复数名词以避免重复。
如:I prefer red roses to white ones.我喜欢红玫瑰胜过白玫瑰。
The problem is harder than that one.这个问题比那个更难。
④ 词汇辨析:it,one,与that
⑴ it是用来代替前文出现的同一事物,即指同类同物,代替可数或不可数名词。复数是they(主格)them(宾格)
I left my electronic dictionary in my drawer,but today it is gone.我把电子词典放在抽屉里,可今天不见了。(it 指上文提到的electronic dictionary)
⑵ one 代替与前面事物同属一类但非同一个的可数名词,表示泛指意义。复数为ones.
如:I don't like this type of CD player. Could you show me a better one?我不喜欢这种类型的CD播放机,能不能给我拿一个更好一点的?(one 指CD player)
⑶ that用来代替前面出现的特指的单数可数名词或特指的不可数名词,可以指同一类;它的复数形式是those,用来替代前面特指的复数名词,只能指物不能指人。
如:Mary's handwriting is far better than that of Henry.玛丽的书法比亨利的好多了。(that 指the handwriting)
 
2.either,neither
 
either表示“两者中任何一个”;neither表示“两者中任何一个都不”;either,neither是一对意义相反的代词,二者用法相同,都可作主语,宾语和定语。
如:Either is OK.(作主语)两个随便哪个都行。
You may take either of the books.作宾语)两本书中随你拿一本。
There are roses on either side of the road.作定语)路两旁种着玫瑰花。
① either 和neither作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。
如:Neither is willing to help her.两人都不愿帮她。
注意:neither 后可跟of 短语
如:Neither of them is interested in the film.他们两个都对那部电影没兴趣。
② either用作代词,可以单独使用,也可和of连用,of后接复数名词,名词前要用一个物主代词,指示代词或定冠词。
如:He doesn't like either of the two places.他不喜欢这两个地方中的任何一个。
③ either...or“不是.….就是..…;或者……或者.……”
neither..…nor“既不.…….也不..…”
皆为并列连词,连接句中两并列成分,连接两并列主语时,谓语动词在人称和数上应遵循就近一致的原则,即根据与谓语动词最靠近的主语决定谓语动词的人称和数的形式。
如:Either he or you have stolen my watch.不是他就是你偷了我的手表。
Neither my sister nor I am willing to work with you.我姐姐和我都不愿和你一起工作。
④ either 在否定句中常位于句末,表示“也”之意,此时either为副词。
如:I don't like maths and he dislike it,either.我不喜欢数学,他也不喜欢。
⑤ neither表示“也不”,位于句首。后面使用倒装语序。
如:This shirt doesn't fit me;neither does that one.这种衬衣不合我的身,那件也一样。
 
3.both,all
 
both“两者,都”仅指两个人或物;all “全部,都”指三个或三个以上的人或物;both of/all of后为名词时,of 可以省略。为代词宾格时,of不可以省略。
如:All (of)the students went to the concert last night.昨晚所有的学生都去听音乐会了。
She invited both of us to her birthday party.她邀请我们两个参加她的生日宴会。
① al指事物的整体或抽象概念时用作单数,指人时用作复数。
如:All is going perfectly.一切进展顺利。
All are here,so let get started.所有人都到齐了,咱们开始吧。
② both 和all都可置于定冠词等限定词之前,也可以直接修饰名词。
如:All the windows are open.所有的窗户都开着。
Both my sister and my cousin like playing cards.我的妹妹和表弟都喜欢打扑克。
③ both,all作主语同位语时应位于实义动词之前,系动词,助动词或情态动词之后。
如:They both like coffee very much.他们两个都很喜欢喝咖啡。
The people all agree to pass a law to protect wild animals.人们一致同意通过一项保护野生动物的法令。
They have both been living in Beijing for 20 years.他们两个在北京生活20年了。
You should all hand in your work tomorrow.明天你们必须把作业交上。
④ 在简略答语中,al和both不可置于句末。
A:Were you all present at the meeting?你们都出席会议了吗?
B:Yes,we all were.是的,我们都出席了。
A:Have you finished the homework?你们完成作业了吗?
B:Yes,we both have.是的,我们都完成了。
注意:all的全部否定形式是none;both的全部否定形式是neither
如:None of us is a worker./ None of us are workers.我们都不是工人。
Neither of us is going to share the cost.我们俩都不承担这笔费用。
⑤ all,both与not连用表示部分否定
如:Not all/both the teachers in this remote school have opportunity to get further education.
=All/both the teachers in this remote school don't have opportunity to get further education.在这所边远学校,不是所有(两个)老师都有机会去进修。
 
4.each,every
① each表示两者或两者以上的“每一个”,强调“个体”,倾向于把整体分开来考虑。(具体的概念)作代词或形容词,可以作主语,宾语,定语和同位语。
如:Each of them has a mobile phone.(作主语)他们每一个都有一部手机。
From each according to his ability,to each according to his need.(作宾语)各尽所能,各取所需。
Each room can seat at least fifty people.(作定语)每个房间至少能坐50人。
We each have a text book.(作同位语)我们每个人有一本教科书。
注意:代词each作同位语,谓语动词与主语we保持一致。
② every指三者或三者以上的“每一个”,强调“全体”,暗示无一例外,在句中只能作定语。(概括的概念)
如:Every student went to the Great Wall with their teachers last Sunday.上周日全体师生去爬的长城。
注意:each of后跟可数名词或代词复数,every不与of连用。
如:Each of the houses here is painted a different color.这里每幢房子都漆成不同的颜色。
③“every+基数词+名词复数”“every+序数词+名词单数”表示“每…,每隔……”
 如:He went to see his grandpa every five days/every fifth day.他每五天去看一次爷爷。
⑴ every 与not连用,表示部分否定。
如:Every man is not honest.=Not every man is honest.并非每个人都诚实。
⑵ each与not连用,表示全部否定。
如:Each man is not honest每个人都不诚实。
⑶ 在下列短语中,用each和every均可。
each/every day;each/every year,each/every time。但:every now and then“时常,不时”为固定结构,不能用each.
 
5.another,other,the other,others,the others
 
① another
⑴ 强调三者或三者以上“另一个”,与可数名词单数连用,表示“另一个”,泛指(无整体范围)
如:I have looked through these.Will you please show me another shirt?这些我都看了,能不能再拿一件衬衫给我看一看。
⑵“another+数词+复数名词”表示在原有基础上“又,再,额外”
如:I have been here for two weeks and I will stay here for another three weeks.我在这里已呆了两周了,我还要在这里再呆三周。
② the other,other
⑴ the other:强调两者之间的“另一个”,one…,the other…
如:On one side of the river grow willows,and on the other side grow poplars.河的一岸长着垂柳,另一岸长着杨树。
可与复数名词连用,表示“其他的人或物”
如:Can you distinguish Venus from the other stars?你能把金星与其他的星星区别开来吗?
⑵ other:“其他的”,与复数名词连用。
如:No matter what other people may said btick to my plan.不管别人说什么,我都会坚持我的计划。
也可与单数名词连用,与单数名词连用时必须有the,some,any,no等词限定;“any + other+单数名词”,表示排除本身的“别的任何一个……”
如:I have no other shoe.我没有其他可穿的鞋了。
Have you got any other book on this subject?你还有关于这个问题的其他书吗?
John isn't here.He might be in some other room.约翰不在这里,他可能在别的房间。
⑶“数词十other+复数名词”表示“额外的”
如:He found there were two other guests beside himself.他发现除了他自己还有另外两个客人。
③ others,the others
⑴ others “others =other+复数名词”,常与some连用,表示“一些”“另一些”。
如:Some of the questions are hard;others are easy.这些问题中有些很难,有些容易。
In the summer vacation,some like to travel,and others like to have part-time jobs.在暑假,有的人喜欢旅游,有的人喜欢打工。
⑵ the others 作代词,表示特定范围的其余的一些人或物。
如:There are five foreign students in our class.Two of them are British and the others(=the other three foreign students)are Americans.我们班有五个外国学生,其中两个是英国人,剩下的三个是美国人。
There are ten apples.Five of them are mine,the others are yours.这儿有10个苹果,5个是我的,其余的5个是你的。
 
6.some,any
 
① some常用在肯定句中,接可数名词复数或不可数名词。
如:Some people work to live,and some live to work.一些人工作是为了活着,一些人活着是为了工作。
I'd like some coffee with milk.我想要点加奶的咖啡。
② any多用于疑问句,否定句,或条件句中,表示“一些”,既可以指可数名词复数,也可指不可数名词。
如:Have you got any money with you?你身上带钱了吗?
There worit be any trouble.不会有麻烦。
If you have any books,please give me some.如果你有书,请给我一些。
③ 注意:
⑴ some有时也用于疑问句中,表示说话者希望对方给予肯定的回答。
如:Would you like some tea?你想喝点茶吗?
⑵ any 有时也可用于肯定句中,表示“任何一个”“任何一些”。
如:Any normal child can learn a language very quickly.任何正常的儿童学习一门语言都非常快。
Tom is taller than any other student in my class.汤姆比班里的其他任何一个同学都高。(汤姆是班里个儿最高的一位同学)
⑶“some/any of +…”结构作主语时,谓语动词需要根据 of 后面的名词单复数而定。
如:Some of the food has gone bad.有些食品变质了。
Some of them agree,and some of them don't.他们中有些人同意,有些不同意。
I don't think any of them are coming.我认为他们没人会来。
Any of your time is to be made full use of.应该充分利用你的任何时间。
⑷some 还可指某一个,此时常修饰可数名词的单数形式,some的这种用法暗含不认识,不知道,不感兴趣,不重视等意思。
如:Some person parked his car here.有人把车停在了这里。
Some day I'm going to take a long motor trip.某一天我要骑摩托车做一次长途旅行。
 
6.much,many
① many修饰或代替可数名词,much修饰或代替不可数名词。
如:He hasn't had much happiness these last few years.最近这几年他没有过多少舒心的日子。
How many times have you been there?你到那里去过几次?
② more是many和much的比较级,many的比较级前用many 等修饰可数名词的词语;much的比较级前用much等修饰不可数名词的词语。
如:He has many (a lot/a few)more apples than I.他的苹果比我的多得多(多几个)。
He has much (a lot/a little)more money than I他的钱比我的多得多(多一些)。
③ 词组a good many和复数名词连用,谓语动词也用复数形式;manya后的名词,动词都用单数。
如:A good many books were imported last year.去年进口了许多书籍。
Many a man has tried it.许多人都已试过了。
④ 作名词或代词,much一般只用于否定句或疑问句。但much 可用在too,so及as之后的肯定句中。
如:Does he know much about it?他对此了解很多吗?
He spends too much money on beer.他花太多的钱喝啤酒。
⑤ much ton修饰形容词或副词,意为“实在太.…”;too mnch修饰不可数名词,表示“太多.……”
如:He drives much too carefully.他开车实在太小心了。
I drank too much wine last night.昨晚我的酒喝多了。
 
7. few,a few,little,a little
① few几乎没有;表否定;代替或修饰可数名词。
a few几个,一些;表little,a little作主语修饰名词时,谓语动词用单数。
如:Few of them have been to London.他们中几乎没人去过伦敦。
There are a few mistakes in his composition.他的作文中有几处错误。
Hurry up.There is little time left.快点,快没时间了。
② little 可作状语,修饰形容词、副词或形容词、副词的比较级形式,相当于a bit.意为“有点”。
not a little=very非常,很
not a bit=not in the least/not at all点也不
如:He is a little/a bit taller than his brother.他比他的兄弟稍高一点。
He is not a little tired.他很累。
He is not a bit tired.他一点也不累。
③ quite a few=many很多;
quite a little=much跟多
如:Quite a few people knew about it.
④ 有关的固定搭配
not a few 相当多的
only a few仅少数,只有几个
little or no 几平没有
little by little 逐渐地
 
2复合不定代词
 
somebody,anybody,nobody
someone,anyone,no one
something,anything,nothing
everybody,everyone,everything
 
1. 作主语时,谓语动词一律用单数。
人员:Everything is ready for the meeting.
Is anybody absent?
注意:作反义疑间句,指物时,一律用单数
Everything is ready,isn't it?
指人时 Somebody was here yesterday,wasn't he?
Nobody came here yesterday,did they?
(看不出单复数时,表泛指)
 
2. 当形容词修饰复合不定代词时,应放在其后,作后置定语。
如:He said nothing new.
My mother cooked something rice for dinner.
注意:复合不定代词可与else 连用。
如:Nobody else but Robert could ever say this thing.除了罗伯特,其他人未曾说过这件事。
Ask somebody else to help you.请别人帮你吧。
 
3. 复合不定代词后不可接 of 短语,但分开写的some one,every one,any one定后可接 of 短语。
如:Every one of the students can speak good English.这些学生中每个人都能说一口流利的英语。
You may tell any one of us.你可以告诉我们中的任何一个人。(no one后不可接of短语,但none可以)


 



★ 疑问代词
 
who,whom,whose,what,which.
 
1who
who指人,是主格。主要作主语或表语。
如:Who saw you?谁看见你了?
Who is that girl哪女孩是谁?
 
2whom
whom指人,为who的宾格,用作定语。
如:With whom did you go to the concert?你和谁去听音乐会?
 
3whose
whose是用来询问某人或某物属于谁的,在句中放在名词前作定语。
如:Whose bicycle is this?
这是谁的自行车?
 
4what
what用于对未知事物提问,主要指事物,也可以指人的职业或身份特征,还可用来询问价格,人口数量等。
如:What do you usually do on Sundays?星期天你经常做什么?
What color do you like?你喜欢什么颜色?
What is your father?你父亲是做什么职业的?
① What...for?有时省略为What for?用来询问原因或目的。
如:What do you spend all the money?for你为什么把那些钱都花光了?
What for?We still have enough food in the apartment.为什么?在公寓里我们仍然还有足够的食物。
② What i...用来表示假设,建议,征求意见或疑虑等。
如:What if it rains while we are on the way?要是旅途中下雨怎么办?
What if I go with you to the bazaar tomorrow?明天我和你们一块去集市怎么样?
③ What about..?表示建议或征求对方意见。
如:What about going to the zoo?去动物园怎么样?
I don't want to leave,what about you?我不想走,你呢?
④ What do yon mean 用于向对方表示愤怒,不满等情绪。
如:What do you mean by shutting the door so loudly?你这么大声关门是什么意思?
What do you mean by shouting at me?你对着我大嚷是什么意思?
 
5which
which可指人或事物,表示在某一范围内选择。用于必须做出某种特定的选择时,which后可以加of,而what 则不可以。
如:Which color do you like better,red or yellow?红色和黄色你更喜欢哪一种?


 
 



1介词的分类
 
 
 
2介词短语的功能
 
介词不能独立在句中做成份,介词后必须与名词、代词、或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成分,表示人、物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之间的关系。
 
⒈ 做定语
如:They didn't find the solution to the problem.
 
⒉ 做状语
如:We have breakfast at seven.(表时间)
They were late for the meeting because of the heavy rain.(表原因)
 
⒊ 做表语
如:What do you mean by doing such a thing?(表方法)
Nothing in the world could live without air or water.(表条件)
 
⒋ 作宾语补足语
如:I found the old building in a bad condition.
 
3常考介词辨析
 
介词是英语中最活跃的词类之一,使用频率相当高,其用法跟冠词一样复杂。
 
⒈ 表示相同或相似概念的介词(短语)的区别
 
 
 
 
 
 
⒉ 常见同一形容词与不同介词搭配时意义上的差别
 
 
⒊ 容易混淆的含有介词固定搭配的词组
 
 
 
4. 常用介词辨异
 
① about,on,of 关于
⑴ on 多用于慎重的、正式的语言交际场合。常见于”学术上”的”论文”或”演说”等题目,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读,有”论及”之意。
⑵ about表示的内容多为普遍、不那么正式,有”述及”之意。
⑶ of作”关于”讲,表示提及、涉及某人(事)时,只表示事情存在或发生,并不涉及详情;有时与about意义相近,但有时意义很不同,常与动词know、hear、learn(听说)、speak、talk、think、tell等连用。
② except,except for,except that,but,besides,beside
⑴ except“除……之外”,指不包括…,后面常接名词、代词(人称代词常用宾格),还可接介词短语、副词和动词不定式,此时相当于but,但不定式常不带to。
⑵ except for"除了,只有”,意思和except一样,主要指说明基本情况后,而在细节上加以修正,后面常接名词性短语。
⑶ except that"除了,只是”,意思和except、except for一样。但在用法上,其后常接名词性从句,也可接when、where等词引导的其他从句。
⑷ but所含”除……外”的意思不如except明确。but 多用在代词(主要是不定代词、否定代词和疑问代词)之后。
⑸ besides 表示”除……外还有”,所排除的事物常包括在所述范围之内。另外,besides可用作副词,相当于also,有”而且,加之,何况”之意。
(6)beside也是介词,表示”在附近”,只不过形似besides,容易相互混淆。如果在区别前后有同类的词语时,就用except,否则就用except for。
③ including,included
⑴ including是一个介词,意为”包括”,它一般放在包括对象的前面。
⑵ included是一个过去分词,意为”包括”。它一般用于被动语态中,也可放在包括对象的后面。
④ in,later,during 都与时段名词搭配
⑴ in作介词,同时段名词搭配,即”in+时段名词”,一般用于将来时。
⑵ later 表示”……以后”,常同时段名词搭配,即”时段名词+later”,常与过去时连用。
⑶ during作介词时,同时段名词搭配,即”during+时段名词”,常与现在时或将来时等连用。
⑤ in,with,by用
⑴ with通常指”用”具体的或有形的工具、器官等,有时也表示”用”某种手段、音调等。
⑵ by作介词表示”用”时,一般指”用”方式、手段等。后面常接动名词或名词,后面接名词时,该名词前面一般不加修饰语。
⑶ in指”用”语言、字体、墨水、体裁、风格、方式、现金、顺序等。
 
② 介词的省略
⑴ 当表示时间的词前有 this,that,next,last,every,each,some,any,all等时,介词常省略。
如:Come any day you like.你想哪天来就哪天来。
⑵ 表示时间的名词前有不定冠词,且不定冠词作”每…”解时,前面不用介词。
如:An apple a day keeps the doctor away.每天吃一个苹果,医生不找我。
⑶ 习惯搭配中介词的省略
一些常和动词、名词或形容词搭配的介词常省略,常见的此类搭配有:spend money/time(in)doing sth,waste money/time(in) doing sth,have difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth,be busy doing sth,stop/prevent sb(from)doing sth等。
 
③ 介词不可遗漏的情况
⑴ 含有不及物动词的不定式在形容词easy,hard,difficult,comfortable等后作状语,且构成不定式的动词与句子的主语存在动宾关系或主语是不定式动作发生的地点时,介词不能遗漏。
如:The chair is comfortable to sit on/in.这把椅子坐着舒服。
The man is difficult to work with.这个人很难共事。
⑵当非谓语动词表示被动意义时,相关介词也不可省略。
如:The problem is well worth paying attention to.这个问题很值得关注。
⑶ 在被动语态中,动词短语中的介词不能遗漏。
如:Your pronunciation should be paid attention to.你应该注意你的发音。
⑷在定语从句中,当从句的谓语和先行词构成动宾关系且从句谓语为不及物动词时,必须加上介词。
如:The library which we often go to is not far away from our school.我们经常去的那个图书馆离我们的学校不远。
⑸ 在too...to...,enough..to...,so..as to...等结构中,含有不及物动词的不定式作结果状语,构成不定式的动词为不及物动词,且该动词与主语构成动宾关系或主语为不定式动作发生的地点时,介词不能遗漏。
如:The ice is too thin to skate on.冰太薄了,不能在上面滑。


 
 代词和介词
 
 
I.单项填空
1.【2019·天津卷·单项填空】3.A study shows the students who are engaged in after-school activities are happier than _________who are not.
A. ones B. those C. these D. them
【答案】B
【解析】考查代词。句意:一项研究表明,参加课外活动的学生比不参加课外活动的学生更开心。空格处代词与the students是对应关系,可以用the ones或者those替代。“them”指代的是前边提到的复数名词,不能与the students形成对应关系。“these”一般不用定语从句修饰。故选B。
2.【2019·江苏卷·单项填空】27.Favorable policies are ___________ to encourage employees' professional development.
A. in effect B. in command C. in turn D. in shape
【答案】A
【解析】考查介词短语。句意:好的制度政策实际上都会激发员工的专业水平的提升。A. in effect实际上;B. in command指挥;C. in turn轮流,依次;D. in shape在外形上,处于良好的状态。故选A。
3.【2018·北京】14. —Good morning, Mr. Lee’s office.
—Good morning. I’d like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon.
A. for    B. on    C. in    D. at
【答案】A
【解析】考查介词。句意:——早上好,Lee先生办公室。——早上好。我想预约下周三下午(和Mr. Lee见面)。make an appointment for意为“为……预约”,是固定搭配,故A选项正确。
4.【2018·天津】11. Bob thought he couldn't go to the party because he had to write a report, but he went ___________.
A. at first    B. after all
C. above all    D. at random
【答案】B
【解析】考查介词短语辨析及语境理解。句意:鲍勃认为他不能去参加聚会,因为他不得不写一份报告,但他终究去了。A. at first起初;B. after all毕竟,终究。C. above all首先;D. at random随便地。根据前面的转折连词可知,与前面情况相反,故选B。
5.【2018·江苏】33. China’s soft power grows _______ the increasing appreciation and understanding of China globally.
A. in line with    B. in reply to C. in return for    D. in honour of
【答案】A
【解析】考查介词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:中国的软实力增长与日俱增全球对中国的赏识和理解相一致。A. in line with按照;与...一致;B. in reply to答复;C. in return for作为 ... 的报酬;D. in honour of为纪念。故选A。
6.【2017·天津卷】12. When you drive through the Redwood Forests in California, you will be _____ trees that are over 1,000 years old.
A. among    B. against    C. behind    D. below
【答案】A
【解析】
试题分析: 句意:当你开车穿过加州的红木森林时,你将会位于超过百年历史的树木之间。 be among 位于之间; be against 反对; be behind 在后面; be below在之下。根据句意,故选A。
7.【2017·天津卷】13. We offer an excellent education to our students. ________, we expect students to word hard.
A. On average     B. At best      C. in return    D. After all
【答案】C
【解析】
试题分析:句意:我们给我们的学生们提供极好的教育,作为回报,我们期待我们的学生们努力学习。A. 平均起来,一般说来    B. 最多,充其量     C. 作为汇报   D. 毕竟,终究。根据句意故选C。
8.【2017·江苏卷】32.Determining where we are _______ our surroundings remains an essential skill for our survival.
A. in contrast to          B. in defense of     C. in face of        D. in relation to
【答案】D
【解析】考查介词短语的辨析。A. in contrast to对比,截然不同;B. in defense of为……辩护;C. in face
of面对;D. in relation to与……有关。句意:根据周围的环境辨别方位仍然是我们生存的一项极其重要的
技能。故选D。
9.【2017·北京卷】35. Many people who live along the coast make a living _______ fishing industry.
   A. at      B. in      C. on      D. by
【答案】B
【解析】许多住在海边上的人都是靠渔业来谋生的。此处用介词in,不用by,因为by后面通常接做什么事情来谋生,此处是指在捕鱼这个行业里,在这个行业里谋生,用in,故选B。
10.【2016·浙江】3. In many ways , the education system in the US is not very different from ____in the UK.
A. that             B. this          C. one              D. it
【答案】A
【解析】句意:在很多方面,美国的教育体系和英国的教育体系很不相同。指代上文的名词education system,用that,而且后面有介词短语作后置定语。This表示“近指”,one是泛指可数名词单数,it是特指上文提到的名词。故选A。
11.【2016·天津】2. The dictionary is ______: many words have been added to the language since it was published.
  A. out of control      B. out of date     C. out of sight      D. out of reach
【答案】B
【解析】句意:这本字典过时了:自从它被出版,很多单词被增加到这个语言中。A.失去控制;B.过时的;C看不见的;D.够不着的。根据句意,故选B。
12.【2016·浙江】6.That young man is honest , cooperative , always there when you need his help .______, he's reliable.
A. Or else       B. In short         C. By the way          D. For one thing
【答案】B
【解析】句意:这个年轻人是诚实的,有合作精神的,当你需要他的帮助的时候,总是在那里。简言之,他是可靠的。A.否则;B.简言之;C.顺便说一下;D.首先。故选B。
13.【2016·浙江】7. The study suggests that the cultures we grow up _______influence the basic processes by which we see world around us.
A. on         B. in           C. at           D. about
【答案】B
【解析】句意:研究表明我们成长的文化影响我们看周围世界的基本过程。The cultures后面是定语从句,省略that,定语从句中cultures作宾语,那么还缺少一个介词,和cultures搭配用介词in,故选B。
14. [2015·福建卷] The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but________ contained any useful suggestions.
A. all    B. none   C. either    D. neither
【答案】D 
【解析】句意:基于这项调查,研究小组制作了两份报告,但是这两份报告都没有包含任何有用的建议。all(三者或三者以上)全都;none(三者或三者以上)都不;either两者中的任何一个;neither两者都不。
15.[2015·四川卷]  Niki is always full of ideas,but ________ is useful to my knowledge.
A.nothing     B.no one     C.neither      D.none
【答案】D 
【解析】nothing没有什么;no one没有人;neither两者都不;none(其中)没有一个。句意:Niki总是有很多的主意,但据我所知,没有一个是有用的。根据句意可知选D。
16. [2015·陕西卷] To warm himself, the sailor  sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot against________.
A. another     B. the other   C. other       D. either
【答案】B 
【解析】所填词表示“两者中的另一个”,即两脚中的另一只脚,用the other,故选B。句意:为了给自己取暖,这位海员坐在火堆前面,光着的双脚相互摩擦着。
17. [2015·天津卷] The quality of education in this small school is better than ________ in some larger schools.
 A. that  B. one   C. it  D. this
【答案】A 
【解析】句意:这个小型学校的教学质量比一些大一点的学校的教学质量要好。that代替上文提到的“The quality of education”。
18.[2015·浙江卷]  How would you like  ________  if you were watching your favourite TV programme and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you?
A.them     B.one   C.those     D.it
【答案】D 
【解析】句意:如果你正在看你最喜爱的电视节目,而此时有人进来,连问都不问你,就把电视关掉了,你的感受会如何?这里用it来指代后面if引导的宾语从句,所以选it。it和that都可以替代“the+单数可数名词或不可数名词”,都是特指,但it指代前面提到的“同一”事物,而that指前面提到的“同类”事物。one替代“a+可数名词单数”,表示泛指。特指的the one相当于that;the one的复数形式the ones在口语中也常用those代替;当后面有of短语时,一般用that或those;当有前置修饰语时,只能用one(s),如the red one。one(s), the one(s), those, that都是替代“同类”事物,其中只有that可替代不可数名词。
19. [2015·重庆卷] The meeting will be held in September, but________ knows the date for sure.
A. everybody       B. nobody  C. anybody      D. somebody
【答案】B 
【解析】句中的but提示尽管会议定在九月份,但具体日期没人确切知晓。
20.【2015·浙江】3. Have you ever heard of the trees that are homes         animals both on land and sea?
A. about             B. to               C. with                D. over
【答案】 B
【解析】句意:你是否有听说过树是陆上动物和海上动物的家?home to sth 固定搭配,是什么的家园的意思。该句是一个疑问句,其中还含有一个定语从句。比如这个句子转化为陈述句应该是You have ever heard of the trees that are homes         animals both on land and sea? 然后把定语从句单独拿出来看将会是trees are homes         animals both on land and sea. 根据固定搭配自然知道答案是to。
 
II.语法填空
1.【2019·新课标I卷·语法填空】Modem methods ___63___ tracking polar bear populations have been employed only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive to perform  (perform) consistently over a large area.
【答案】of/for
【解析】考查介词用法。此处tracking polar bear populations作Modern methods的定语,用of 连接,“methods of doing sth.”,意为“……的方法”,构成固定结构。或者意为“对于跟踪北极熊的方法”用for。故填of/for。
2.【2019·新课标III卷·语法填空】We were first greeted with the barking by a pack___63___ dogs,seven to be exact.
【答案】of
【解析】考查介词。“a pack of”意为“一群”。故填of。
3.【2019·浙江卷·语法填空】But can uniforms help improve school standards? The answer___61___ this question is not clear.
【答案】to
【解析】考查介词。句意:这个问题的答案不清楚。the key/answer to ...这是固定搭配,“……的答案是……”。故填to。
4. 【2019·北京卷·语法填空】First celebrated ___5___ 1970,the Day now includes events in more than 190 countries and regions(地区).
【答案】in
【解析】 in   考查介词的用法,年份前面应该加介词in。
5.【2019·北京】I know I will whisper to ___3___(I) the two simple words “Be yourself”.
【答案】myself  
【解析】考查反身代词,此处用作宾语,表示对自己低声说,所以用“myself”。
6. 【2018·全国III】 I was searching ___67___ these three western lowland gorillas I'd been observing. No one had seen them for hours, and my colleagues and I were worried.
【答案】for
【解析】考查动词短语搭配。search for是固定搭配,表示“寻找”,表示“我”在寻找“我”研究的三只西部低地大猩猩。
7. 【2018·浙江】 If you are not going to suffer this problem, then I suggest that the next time you go to your mum’s home ___65___ dinner, get a few cooking tips from her.
【答案】for
【解析】考查介词。表示去母亲家去吃饭,表示目的用介词for,故填for。
8. 【2018·全国I】If you are time poor, you need run for only half the time to get the same benefits as other sports, so perhaps we should all give___70___a try.
【答案】it或running
【解析】考查代词或名词的用法。我们都应该试试跑步。此处give it a try意为:试试。此处it可以指running。故填it或running。
9. 【2018·全国III】When the gorillas and I frightened each other, I was just glad to find____68____(they) alive.
【答案】them
【解析】考查代词。此处做find 的宾语,所以用宾格them。
10. 【2018·浙江】Many westerners ___57___ come to China cook much less than in their own countries once they realize how cheap ___58___ can be to eat out.
【答案】who/that
【解析】考查关系代词。句中包含定语从句,先行词是westerners指人,在定语从句中做主语,用关系代词who/that引导,故填who/that。
【答案】it
【解析】考查it用法。句子为感叹句,正常语序应该是it can be cheap to eat out.其中不定式to eat out是真正主语,用it 是形式主语。故填it。
11.[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]There has been a recent trend in the food service industry towards lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) 61.________ a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side effects such as overweight and heart disease—the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.
【答案】 as 
【解析】考查介词。这个做法最初是医学界作为一种对抗心脏病的形式开始的。as表示“作为”,故填as。
12.[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]In 1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometres and allowed people to avoid terriblecrowds on the roads above as they travelled to and 62.________ work.
【答案】from 
【解析】考查介词。与前面的介词to一起来表示上下班(to and from work)。
13.[2017·全国卷Ⅲ]After school she plans to take a year off to model fulltime before going to university to get a degree 68.________ engineering or architecture.
【答案】in 
【解析】考查介词。get a degree in是固定搭配,意为“在……方面获得学位”。
14.[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]However, the railway quickly proved to be a great success and within six months, more than 25,000 people were using 67.________ every day.
【答案】it 
【解析】考查代词。it指代伦敦地铁。
15.【2016·全国新课标I】On my recent visit, I help a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by _____68_ (it) mother.
【答案】its
【解析】考查代词。 修饰名词用形容词性的物主代词,故填its。
16.【2016·上海】(B)Do you, for instance, feel that too much is being expected of (37)______, and yet find it impossible to say no?
【答案】you  
【解析】考查上下文串联。句意:例如,你是否感觉到对你期待得太多了?本句的主语是you,所以仍然使用宾格you作为介词of的宾语。
17.【2016·四川】By that time, the panda no longer needed 48  (it)mother for food.
【答案】its    
【解析】句意:小熊猫不再需要它妈妈的食物。形容词性物主代词修饰名词,故填its。
18.【2016·全国新课标I】But my connection with pandas goes back ____64__ my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s,
【答案】to  
【解析】考查介词。固定短语:go back to “回到”。
19.【2016·全国新课标II】Most of us are more focused  44  our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day.
【答案】on
【解析】考查固定搭配。形容词短语be focused on集中于....;很多人早晨对任务的注意力要比晚些时候的注意力更集中。
20.【2016·全国新课标III】Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example, most people traditionally eat __70__ their hands.
【答案】with
【解析】考查介词。句意:在印度,大部分人还是用传统的吃饭方法--用手拿,with+表示具体工具的名词,故填with。
21.【2016·四川】The mother continued to care for the young panda 47  more than two years.
【答案】for   
【解析】句意:妈妈继续照顾小熊猫两年多。此处表示一段时间,故填for。
22.[2015·全国卷I]A few hours before/earlier, I'd been at home in Hong Kong, with  63.________(it) choking smog. Here, the air was clean and fresh, even with the rain.
【答案】 its  
【解析】考查形容词性物主代词。几个小时前,“我”在香港的家里,呼吸着令人窒息的烟雾。后面为名词,故用its。
23.【2014新课标全国II】A woman on the bus shouted , “Oh dear “ It is 69 (I)”.
【答案】me /mine
【解析】考查代词。从语境判断此处是做表语,强调“是我的包,或者是我丢了包”,填me或mine。
 
III.短文改错
1.【2019·新课标II卷·短文改错】When I studied chemistry high school, I reconsidered mg goal and decided to be a doctor.
【答案】在high前面加at/in
【解析】考查介词。在高中,短语为at/in high school。故在high前面加at/in。
2. 【2019·新课标III卷·短文改错】I want my cafe to have a special theme such as like "Tang Dynasty".
【答案】去掉such as后的like
【解析】考查固定短语。such as意为“比方说……”,用来列举,后面无需加上like。故将like去掉。
3.【2019·新课标I卷·短文改错】From then on, I started to play my football with classmates after school. I am a good player now.
【答案】将my去掉 
【解析】考查固定搭配。踢足球的英语表达“play football”,中间不能加冠词或者代词。故将my去掉。
4.【2019·新课标III卷·短文改错】 In the cafe, customers will enjoy yourselves in the historical environment that is created for them.
【答案】yourselves改为themselves
【解析】考查反身代词前后一致。此处指顾客们在这种氛围中会很开心,需用第三人称单数形式的反身代词,且为复数形式。故将yourselves改为themselves。
5. 【2018·全国I】They also had a small pond which they raised fish.
【答案】which改成in which或where 
【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。他们还有一个小池塘,里面养着鱼。此处a small pond是先行词,其在后面的定语从句中作地点状语,故用in which或where。
6. 【2018·全国I】At the end of our trip, I told my father that I planned to return for every two years, but he agreed.
【答案】删除for    
【解析】考查介词的用法。时间名词有every,each,last等词修饰时,其前不用介词。故删除for。
but改成and   考查并列连词的用法。我计划每两年回来一次,他同意了。此处是并列关系,故将but改成and。
7. 【2018·全国II】Still I was unwilling to play the games for them sometimes.
【答案】for改为with
【解析】考查介词。play the games with sb.表示“和某人一块玩游戏”,故把for改为with。
8. 【2018·全国II】They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain.
【答案】us改为me
【解析】考查代词。句意:他们会对我说玩纸牌有助于大脑。偷换人称代词,是对“我”说,前面提到的I,而不是we。故把us改为me。
9. 【2018·全国III】 I had done myself homework but I was shy.
【答案】myself改成my或the
【解析】考查代词错误。句意:我已经完成了自己的作业。表示“我的”用my不用myself,或改为定冠词the也可以。
10.[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]It was a relief and I came to a sudden stop just in the middle on the road.
【答案】on改为of 
【解析】考查介词。分析语境可知作者表示“在路中间急刹车”。on the road表示“在路上”, the middle of the road表示“路的中央”,强调的是“the middle”。故将on改为of。
11. [2017·全国卷Ⅱ]They have also bought for some gardening tools.
【答案】去掉for 
【解析】考查动词搭配。buy为及物动词,不能接介词for。
12.[2017·全国卷Ⅲ]When I look at this picture of myself, I realize of how fast time flies.
【答案】删去of 
【解析】考查介词。realize是及物动词,后接宾语不需要介词,故删去介词of。
13.[2017·全国卷Ⅱ] Mr and Mrs Zhang all work in our school.
【答案】all改成both或去掉all 
【解析】考查代词的用法。根据语境可知,张家夫妇仅有二人,用both指代。
14.[2017·全国卷Ⅲ]This picture often brings back to me many happy memories of your high school days.
【答案】your → my 
【解析】考查代词。整篇文章都是在说“我”的事情,而且根据前面me可知此处还是指“我的”高中生活。
15.【2016·全国新课标I】Instead, he hopes that our business will grow steadily.
【答案】our→ his   
【解析】考查代词。根据句意可知此处是指叔叔的生意,用his指代。
16.【2016·全国新课标II】If we go on a trip abroad, we can broaden you view and gainknowledge we cannot get from books.
【答案】your改为our
【解析】考查代词。应该使用our与本句的主语we保持一致。句意:如果我们出国旅游,我们就拓宽视野并学到书本上学不到的知识。
17.【2016·全国新课标III】At the first, I thought I knew everything and could make decisions by yourself.
【答案】yourself—myself
【解析】考查反身代词。句意:我认为我什么都知道,可以自己拿主意了。这里指作者自己做决定,根据主语I可知,应该用myself,故把yourself改为mmyself。
18.【2016·四川】When he came back, I found a bunch of flowers in her hand.
【答案】her---his    
【解析】句意:在爸爸手里。故把her---his。
19.【2016·浙江】Every time he arrived home at the end of the day ,we’d greet her at the door.
【答案】her改成him
【解析】根据上文可知我们每天在门口迎接爸爸。用him指代my father,作greet的宾语。故her改成him。
20.【2016·全国新课标I】My uncle says that he never dreams becoming rich in the short period of time.
【答案】 becoming前加of  
【解析】考查介词。  固定短语: dream of 梦想做某事。
21.【2016·全国新课标III】At last, I will be on my own, but I still want to have my parents to turn to whenever I need help.
【答案】to—for
【解析】考查介词。leave sp for sp离开某地前往另一地,college是目的地,故把to改为for。
22.【2016·四川】Dad cleaned the house, and then went on shopping.
【答案】去掉on    
【解析】固定词组:go shopping 去购物。可知去掉on。
23.【2016·浙江】While they chatted, my father would lift my sister and me up to sit in the top of the fridge.
【答案】in改成on
【解析】on the top of…为固定搭配,意为“在……顶部”。故in改成on。
24.【2015·四川】If you are me ,would you talk to him?
【答案】him—them
【解析】考查代词。根据上文可知,作者交了三个朋友,故用them而非him。句意为:你会和他们说吗?
25.【2015·浙江】Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them.  
【答案】them-it考查代词  
【解析】此处的it指代的是学校。
26.【2015·新课标全国II】Five minutes later, Tony saw parents.
【答案】saw后加his  
【解析】由上下文可知,他看到的是他的父母,故 saw后加his。
27.【2014辽宁】We appreciate our apologies and goodwill, but we hope that you can figure a good way of settling the matter.
【答案】our改成your
【解析】句意:我们感谢你们的道歉和祝愿,物主代词错误,our改成your
28.[2014·陕西卷]Neither of the arrows hit the target.
【答案】Neither →None.
【解析】考查代词。此处的箭不是两支,故Neither →None.
29.[2014·四川卷]  If it's a false alarm and there is no fire, your teacher will lead us back to the classroom.
【答案】us---you。
【解析】考查人称代词的用法。your teacher will lead us back to the classroom.根据前面your teacher判断此处指带领“你们”,把us改为you。
 
 
 

相关教案

    相关课件资料