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2021年高考英语大纲规定的24个语法梳理(三)

来源:会员上传 日期:2021-01-11 09:14:02 作者:
 



1形容词的比较级和最高级的变换形式

⒈ 在形容词词尾加上-er,-est构成比较级、最高级。
如:
 
 
⒉ 双写最后一个字母,再加上一er、-est构成比较级、最高级。
如:
 
 
⒊ 以不发音的字母e结尾的形容词,加上-r,-st构成比较级、最高级。
如:
 
 
⒋ 以字母y结尾的形容词,把y改为i,再加上-er、-est构成比较级、最高级。
如:
 
 
⒌ 双音节、多音节形容词,在单词前面加上-morel-mo成比较级、最高级。
如:
 
 
⒍ 不规则变化的形容词。
如:
 
 
2原级用法
 
⒈ 原级比较:as+形容词或副词原级+as
① 在否定句或疑问句中可用so.…as。
例如:He can not run so fast as you.
② 当as.…as中间有名词时采用以下格式:
as +形容词+a+数名词
as+many/much+名词
如:This is as good an example as the other is.
I can carry as much paper as you can.
③ 用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。
如:This room is twice as big as that one.
I can carry as much paper as you can..
④ 用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。
如:This room is twice as big as that one.
Your room is the same size as mine.
 
 
⒉ 倍数表达法
① A is three(four, etc) times the size (height,length etc.)of B.
如:The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比那座旧楼大(高)三倍。
② A is three(four, etc.) times as big (high,long,etc.)as B.
如:Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。
③ A is three (four etc.) times bigger (higher, longer etc.) than B.
如:Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。
用times表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.
 
3形容词比较级的用法
 
形容词的比较级用于两个人或事物的比较,结构形式如下:
 
⒈ A+is/ arm/are 形容词比较级+than+B
如:She is taller than
Tom is more athletic than Sam.
 
⒉ 比较级+and+比较级,表示“越来越”
例如:warmer and warmer
nicer and nicer
more and more beautiful
 
⒊ the+比较级……,the+比较级……
如:The more you read the book, the more interesting you found.
 
⒋ 比较级的修饰语有:much,far,even,a little,a bit,a lot 等。
如:He made fewer mistakes than I did.
He is even richer than I.
 
4形容词最高级的用法
 
形容词最高级用于两个以上的人和物进行比较,其结构形式为:主语+谓语(系动词)+the +形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句,比较常用在in,of 或among的结构中,形容词最高级前+the.
如:I am the best of the three.
He is the thinnest boy in my class.
 
5重点与难点
 
⒈ 形容词原级表示比较级含义:
如:John is not so stupid as Mike.
John is less stupid than Mike.
John is cleverer than Mike.约翰不象迈克那么笨。
 
⒉ 用比较级表示最高级:
如:约翰是班里最高的男生。
John is taller than any other boy in the class.
John is the tallest boy in the class.
John is taller than any other boy.
 
⒊ the more.……the more..表示越.….越…….
如:The more books you read,the wider your knowledge is.
The more food you eat,the fatter you are.
 
⒋ more and more..表示越来…….越……
如:More and more students realized the importance of a foreign language.
Our country is getting stronger and stronger.
 
⒌ 如在两者间表示最……时,要在比较级前加the,而且还用of the two,of the pair短语:
如:John is the clever of the two boys.
of the two boys,John is the clever.


 
 
 



1概念
 
副词和形容词一样,也有原级、比较级和最高级三个等级。其构成方式有规则变化和不规则变化两种情况。规则变化的一般规律是:单音节词的比较级和最高级在词尾加-er或-est;多音节词以及-ly结尾的副词(early 除外),前面加more或most。不规则的变化式只能采用“各个击破”的办法去记忆。
 
⒈ 规则变化
如:
 
 
② 不规则变化
例如:
 
 
2副间的比较级的用法
 
⒈ 单独使用
如:Try to do better next time.下次争取干好一点。
He'lI come back sooner or later.他迟早会回来的。
Please speak more slowly.请讲慢一点。
 
⒉ 和than一起使用
如:He swims better than I do.他游泳游得比我好。
Can you do any better than that.你能不能干的好一些?
He arrived earlier than usual.他到的比平时早。
 
⒊ 比较级前可有状语修饰
如:You must work much faster.你必须大大加快干活的速度。
Can you come over a bit more quickly?你能稍稍快点来吗?
 
⒋ as…as和not so…as结构这两个结构也可结合副词使用
① as…as可用在肯定句中,表示“像……一样",后面的副词要用原级。
如:She can run as fast as a deer.她能跑的像鹿一样快。
② 在否定句中,as…as和so…as都可以用。
例如:I don't go there as much as I use.我现在到那里不象过去那么多了。
I didn't do as(so)well as I should.我做的不如我应做的那么好。
③ 这种句子中也可以有一个表示程度的状语。
例如:She can read twice as fast as he does.她阅读的速度比他快一倍。
 
3副词最高级的用法
 
副词最高级可修饰动词,前面多数不带定冠词 the。
如:He laughs best who laughs last.(谚语)谁笑在最后谁笑的最好。
of the four of us,I sang(the)worst.我们四人中我唱的最差。
 
4副词比较级和最高级的一些特殊用法
 
副词比较级和最高级还可用在一些特别结构或短语中。
 
⒈ more and more 越来越……
例如:It rained more and more heavily.雨下得越来越大了
She went farther and farther away.她越走越远了。
 
⒉ the more..the more 越……越……
例如:The more I work,the more I accomplish.我干得越多,完成的就越多。
 
⒊ had better(not)do sth最好(不要)做某事
例如:We'd better not disturb him. 我们最好不要打扰他。
What had we better do?我们最员?
 
 形容词和副词
 
 
I.单项填空
1.【2019·江苏】28.Unlike traditional gyms, app-backed gyms offer people ___________ options to exercise.
A. casual B. regular C. flexible D. tight
【答案】C
【解析】考查形容词辨析。句意:不像传统的体育锻炼,有app软件的体育锻炼提供了灵活的锻炼选项。A. casual偶然的,随便的;B. regular定期的,有规律的;C. flexible灵活的;D. tight紧的,密封的。故选C。
 
2.【2018·江苏】34. Despite the poor service of the hotel, the manager is _______ to invest in sufficient training for his staff.
A. keen        B. reluctant    C. anxious      D. ready
【答案】B
【解析】考查形容词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:尽管旅馆服务不好,经理还不愿投入为员工提供足够的培训。A. keen敏锐的;B. reluctant不情愿的;C. anxious渴望的;D. ready准备好的。故选B。
 
3.【2017·江苏】29. Only five years after Steve Jobs’ death ,smart –phones defeated _______ PCs in sales.
A. controversial B. contradictory 
C. confidential D. conventional  
【答案】D
【解析】考查形容词的辨析。A. controversial 有争议的;B. contradictory对立的,相互矛盾的;C.
confidential机密的,秘密的;D. conventional传统的,智能手机在销量上打败了传统的个人电脑,故选D。
句意:就是在乔布斯死后的五年,智能手机在销售上击败了传统的个人电脑。
 
4.【2017·江苏卷】34. The disappearance of dinosaurs is not necessarily caused by astronomical incidents. But _______ explanations are hard to find.
A. alternative          B. aggressive          
C. ambiguous          D. apparent
【答案】A
【解析】考查形容词的辨析。A. alternative可供替代的;B. aggressive好斗的,有进取心的;C. ambiguous
有野心的,耗时的;D. apparent显而易见的。句意:恐龙的消失未必是由天体灾害引起的,但是也很难找到其它的解释。故选A。
 
5.【2017·天津卷】3. —I want to see Mr. White. We have an appointment.
—I’m sorry, but he is not ________ at the moment, for the meeting hasn’t ended.
A. busy        B. active       C. concerned      D. available
【答案】D
【解析】句意:--我想见怀特先生,我们有约。--对不起,他现在没空,因为会议还没有结束。A.忙碌;B.积极,活跃;C关心;D.有空。根据语境,故选D。
 
6.【2016·浙江】13. A sudden stop can be a very  frightening experience , ______ if you are travelling at high speed.
A. eventually           B. strangely           
C. merely            D. especially
【答案】D
【解析】考查副词辨析。句意:突然停止可能是一个可怕的经历,尤其是如果你以高速运行的时候。A.最终;B.奇怪地;C.仅仅地;D.尤其地。故选D。
 
7.【2016·浙江】16. In this article , you need to back up general statements with ________ examples.
A. specific          B. permanent           
C. abstract           D. universal
【答案】A
【解析】考查形容词辨析。句意:在文章中,你需要用具体的例子来支持总的观点。A.具体,明确的;B.永久的;C.抽象的;D.全球的,共通的。故选A。
 
8.【2015·浙江】13. Most of us, if we know even a little about where our food comes from, understand that every bite put into our mouths was         alive.
A. steadily             B. instantly               
C. formerly          D. permanently
【答案】C
【解析】句意:就算我们很少了解食物来自于哪里,我们大多数人都明白,放在我们的口里的每一点食物在之前都是活着的。A. steadily意为稳定地, B. instantly意为立即地,C. formerly意为先前地, D. permanently意为永久地。在做题的时候,只需要理解最后一句话就可以了was         ______alive. 根据句意及常识不能得出答案,在吃入口中之前的都是活着的。
 
9.【2015·浙江】14. Listening is thus an active, not a          , behavior consisting of hearing, understanding and remembering.
A. considerate          B. sensitive         
C. reliable         D. passive
【答案】D
【解析】句意:因此听是一种主动的,而不是被动的行为。它包含听,理解和记忆。A. considerate意为考虑周全的, B. sensitive意为敏感的,C. reliable意为可靠的,D. passive意为被动的。根据not可以知道前后是反义表达,所以选D。此题的关键是有一个not这是表示否定的,这表明跟前面的active是反义的关系,根据4个选项的意思不能得出答案是 D. passive被动的。
 
10.【2015·四川】9.Little Tom sat         watching the monkey dancing in front of him.
A. amaze         B. amazing        C. amazed        D. to amaze
【答案】C
【解析】本句考查形容词作状语。本句考查形容词作伴随状语,意为:小Tom坐在那儿看着小猴子在他面前跳舞,很吃惊。主要考查B、C之间的区别,选项B意为:令人吃惊的,常修饰物;而选项C意为:感到吃惊的,常修饰人。根据句意,本题选择C。
 
11.【2015·四川】7.Andy is content with the toy. It is          he has ever got.
A. a better      B. the better      C. a best        D. the best
【答案】D
【解析】考查最高级和比较级。根据上一句话可知,Andy对这个玩具很满意,故选择D,意为:这是他曾得到的最好的玩具。
 
12.【2015·福建】23.It was ________of Michael to inform us of his delay in case we got worried.
A. careless  B. considerate C. patient D. generous
【答案】B
【解析】考查形容词辨析A. careless不小心的;B. considerate体贴的;C. patient有耐心的;D. generous慷慨的。该句意思为:麦克真是体贴,他通知我们他会迟点来以防我们着急。故选B
 
13.【2015·江苏】31.The police officers decided to conduct a thorough and _______ review of the case.
A. comprehensive     B. complicated      
C. conscious      D. crucial
【答案】A
【解析】形容词词义辨析.句意:警官决定对这起案件进行一次彻底全面的审查。A项“综合的,全面的,有理解力的”;B项“复杂的”;C项“有意识的”;D项“至关重要的”。故选A项。
 
14.【2015·安徽】26.I’m so ______ to all those volunteers because they helped my terrible day end happily.
  A. special   B. superior  C. grateful  D. attractive
【答案】C
【解析】考查形容词辨析。句意:我非常感激所有的志愿者,因为他们帮我把糟糕的一天变成了愉快的一天。A特殊的;B优秀的,比......好的;C感激的;D有吸引力的。根据句意可知,这里是在向志愿者表达感激之情,故选C。
 
15.【2015·安徽】31.They gave money to the old people's home either ______ or through their companies.
A. legally   B. sincerely  C. personally  D. deliberately
【答案】C
【解析】考查副词辨析。句意:他们给那位老人的家里送钱,有的是一个人的名义,有的则是通过他们的公司。A合法地;B真诚地;C亲自,当面地,个人而言;D故意地。故选C。
 
16.【2015·湖北】29.The girl used to be shy, but is ____ getting active in group work and is more willing to express herself.
A. gradually       B. usually         C. previously        D. merely
【答案】A
【解析】副词词义辨析。句意:那个女孩过去很害羞,但现在团队合作越来越积极,(比以前)更愿意表达自己的想法。A项“逐渐地”;B项“通常,经常”;C项“以前”;D项“仅仅”。故选A项。
 
17.【2015·湖北】27.Even though the conference hall is near his apartment, he has to hurry a little if he wants to be_____.
A. accurate        B. punctual         
C. efficient         D. reasonable
【答案】B
【解析】形容词词义辨析。句意:尽管会议大厅靠近他的公寓,如果他想要准时的话,还是必须快点。A项“精确的”;B项“守时的,准时的”;C项“有效率的”;D项“合理的”。故选D项。
 
18.【2015·湖北】28.I don’t think what he said is _____ to the topic we are discussing . He has missed the point.
A. faithful        B. parallel          C. relevant          D. similar
【答案】C
【解析】形容词词义辨析。句意:我认为他所说的和我们今天讨论的话题无关。他没有抓住要点。A项“忠实的,忠诚的”;B项“与……平行”;C项“和……相关”;D项“和……相似”。be relevant to“和……相关”。故选C项。
 
19.【2014·全国大纲卷】34.Henry was away from home for quite a bit and _______ saw his family.
A. frequently    B. seldom   C. always   D. usually
【答案】B
【解析】考查副词词义辨析。句意:Henry离开家很长时间了并且很少回来看家人。根据句意因为离开很长时间了,所以,他应该很少回家。根据句意选B。Frequently频繁地;always 总是;usually通常。
 
20.【2014·江西卷】23 Thanks for your directions to the house; we wouldn’t have found it ___.
A.   nowhere       B. however     C. otherwise      D. instead
【答案】C
【解析】由后句情态动词完成否定式wouldn’t have found可知是对过去发生情况的一种反面虚拟。Otherwise要不然,因此C选项正确。Nowhere没什么地方;however然而;instead代替 均不符合题意。句意为“ 感谢你告诉我们怎么去那栋房子。要不然那时我们可找不到的。”
 
21.【2014·福建卷】24. With online shopping increasingly popular, the Internet is seen as a(n)    way of reaching target customers.
A. temporary     B. complex      C. accurate       D. efficient
【答案】D
【解析】这里表示“网络被看作是获得消费者的最有效的方法”。temporary 临时的;complex 复杂的;accurate 精确的;Efficient有效的,所以选D。句意:随着网上购物的快速流行,网络被看作是获得消费者的最有效的方法。
 
22.【2014·湖北卷】What was so _____about Jasmine Westland’s victory was that she came first in the marathon bare-footed.
A. awful   B. essential   C. impressive    D. obvious
【答案】C
【解析】句意 “关于Jasmine Westland的胜利我们印象很深的就是她光脚获得了马拉松的第一。” awful表示“可怕的,敬畏的”;essential为“根本的”;impressive是“印象深刻的”而obvious是“明显的”意思,故选C。
 
23.【2014·浙江卷】13. The aim of education is to teach young people to think for themselves and not follow others ______ .
   A. blindly            B. unwillingly           C. closely             D. carefully
【答案】A
【解析】副词辨析及语境的理解。A. blindly盲目的;B. unwillingly不情愿地; C. closely紧密地;D. carefully仔细地。句意:教育的目的是教年轻人要独立思考而不是盲目地听从他人。根据句意故选A。
 
24. 14.【2014·浙江卷】4. Joe is proud and ______, never admitting he is wrong and always looking for someone else to blame.
A. strict   B. sympathetic   C. stubborn  D. sensitive
【答案】C
【解析】考查形容词辨析。A. strict严格的;B. sympathetic同情的;C。stubborn顽固的;D. sensitive敏感的。句意:Joe是一个又自豪的又固执的人,他从不承认自己错了,总是找另一个人受责备。根据后面的叙述从不承认错误,看来他是顽固的。故选C。
 
25.【2014·安徽卷】27.My good performance in the job interview left me       about my future and about what I can do here.
A. puzzled      B. sensitive      C. optimistic      D. embarrassed
【答案】C
【解析】句意:我在工作面试中的良好表现让我对我的未来,对我在这里能做什么很乐观。四个选项的含义分别是: A. puzzled困惑的, B. sensitive敏感的, C. optimistic乐观的, D. embarrassed尴尬的。根据句意选C。
 
II.语法填空
1.【2019·新课标I卷】It is difficult to figure out a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been  ___62___ (poor) studied; however, biologists calculate that there are about 20,000-25,000 polar bears worldwide.
【答案】poorly
【解析】考查副词用法。根据句意和结构分析可知,此处用副词poorly修饰谓语动词has been studied,意为“研究很少”。故填poorly。
 
2.【2019·新课标II卷】Her years of hard work have ___63___(final)been acknowledged after a customer nominated(提名)her to be Cheshire's Woman Of The Year.
【答案】finally
【解析】考查副词用法。根据空格所处位置可知,此处应用副词形式作状语,修饰谓语动词have been acknowledged,意为“最终得以认可”,故填finally。
 
3. 【2019·全国I】Scientists have responded by noting that hungry bears may be congregating(聚集) around human settlements, leading to the illusion(错觉) that populations are ___68___ (high) than they actually are.
【答案】higher
【解析】考查形容词比较级。根据其后than they actually are可知,此处需用形容词的比较级,故填higher。
 
4. 【2019·全国II】 We are so proud of her. It's ___70___ (wonder).
【答案】wonderful
【解析】考查词性转换(名词变形容词)。根据前面的We are so proud of her.我们为她感到骄傲和自豪,分析本句空格前面是系动词is,后面跟形容词作表语,故填wonderful。
 
5. 【2019·全国III】On our way to the house,it was raining ___61___ hard that we couldn't help wondering how long it would take to get there. It was in the middle of Pearl City.
【答案】so
【解析】考查固定句型。分析结构可知,此处是结果状语从句,修饰副词hard应该填so。“so …that”句型,表示“如此……以至于”。
 
6. 【2019·全国III】They also shared with us many ___67___(tradition)stories about Hawaii that were ___68___ (huge)popular with tourists.
【答案】traditional
【解析】考查词性转换空格处于名词stories前,判断应该用形容词作定语。故填traditional。
【答案】hugely
【解析】考查词性转换。空格在句中位于形容词前,所以判断用副词作状语。故填hugely。
 
7. 【2019·浙江6】When the children are walking or cycling to school on dark mornings, car drivers can ___60___ (easy) see them.
【答案】easily
【解析】考查副词。根据句中can see them可知,需要easy的副词形式来修饰动词,故填easily。
 
8. 【2019·浙江6】School uniforms are ___65___ (tradition) in Britain, but some schools are starting to get rid of them. Some very good schools don't have a uniform policy. However, uniforms are still popular. Pupils at about 90 percent of British secondary schools wear uniforms.
【答案】traditional
【解析】考查形容词。分析句子结构可知,空处作are后面的表语,所以需要tradition的形容词形式traditional,表示“传统的”。
 
9. 【2019·北京】Taking full advantage of the college’s chances and resources(资源),Students should have a proper attitude towards college before thinking about which college to attend, and it’s never too early to make necessary preparations for a healthy and ___10___(meaning)college experience.
【答案】meaningful   
【解析】考查词性转换,因and前为形容词healthy,此处也应该用形容词形式meaningful。
 
10. 【2018·全国I】According to a review of evidence in a medical journal, runners live three years ___61___(long) than non-runners.
【答案】longer
【解析】考查副词的比较级。医学报告显示:经常跑步的人比不跑步的人多活3年。根据than可知用比较级,故填longer。
 
11. 【2018·全国I】Running is cheap, easy and it's always___69___(energy).
【答案】energetic
【解析】考查词形变化。跑步总是让人充满活力的。根据it’s可知,系动词后用形容词作表语。故填energetic。
 
12. 【2018·全国II】A taste for meat is ___63___ (actual) behind the change: An important part of its corn is used to feed chickens, pigs, and cattle.
【答案】actually
【解析】考查副词。句意:对肉的需求实际上是这种变化的背后原因。句子结构完整,用副词修饰句子。故填actually。
 
13. 【2018·全国II】 According to the World Bank, China accounts for about 30 percent of total ___67___ (globe)fertilizer consumption.
【答案】global
【解析】考查词性转换。句意:中国约占全球化肥总消费量的30%。fertilizer consumption是名词短语,故应该用形容词修饰。故填global。
 
14. 【2018·全国III】 ___63___(loud)of all. The noise shakes the trees as the male beats his chest and charges toward me.
【答案】loudest
【解析】考查最高级。根据后面的of all可知,他声音最大,所以用最高级loudest。
 
15. 【2018·浙江】The obvious one is money; eating out once or twice a week may be ___62___(afford) but doing this most days adds up. There could be an even ___63___ (high) cost on your health.
【答案】affordable
【解析】考查形容词。此处表示一周一两次外出吃饭是负担得起的,系动词be后用形容词作表语,表示“负担得起的”故填affordable。
【答案】higher
【解析】考查形容词比较级。此处修饰名词cost用形容词,由even表示程度修饰比较级,故填higher。
 
16.【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】Even 66.________ (bad), the amount of fast food that people eat goes up.
【答案】worse 
【解析】考查比较级。更糟糕的是,人们所吃的快餐的数量增加了。故填worse。
 
17.【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】]However, be 69.________ (care) not to go to extremes.
【答案】careful 
【解析】考查形容词。分析语境可知be后面应该用形容词作表语,故填careful。
 
18.【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】Steam engines were used to pull the carriages and it must have been 66.________ (fair) unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise.
【答案】fairly 
【解析】考查副词。副词修饰形容词。
 
19.【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】The Central London Railway was one of the most 70.________ (success) of these new lines, and was opened in 1900. It had whitepainted tunnels and bright red carriages, and proved extremely popular with the public.
【答案】successful 
【解析】考查形容词。形容词与定冠词连用,相当于名词,由于该词后有介词of结构,故只能用形容词。
 
20.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ】It is 70.________ (certain) fun but the lifestyle is a little unreal. I don't want to have nothing else to fall back on when I can't model any more.”
【答案】certainly 
【解析】考查副词。certainly在此处修饰形容词fun。
 
21.【2017·浙江卷6月考】But something made her look closer, and she noticed a 57.________ (shine) object. Yes, there beneath the leafy top of one tiny carrot was her longlost wedding ring.
【答案】 shiny/shining 
【解析】考查形容词。此处根据下文的object可知,需用形容词作定语,故填shiny或shining。
 
22.【2017·浙江卷6月考】Sixteen years 60.________ (early), Pahlsson had removed the diamond ring to cook a meal.
【答案】earlier 
【解析】考查比较级。此处语意表示“16年前”,故填earlier。
 
23.【2016·全国新课标I】The title will be __63___(official) given to me at a ceremony in London.
【答案】officially
【解析】考查副词。修饰动词用副词形式。
 
24.【2016·全国新课标II】Recent studies show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks  47  (regular).
【答案】regularly
【解析】考查副词。在英语副词通常做状语修饰形容词、副词或动词,形容词通常在句中做定语或表语修饰名词。所以本句中使用副词regularly做状语修饰动词take short breaks。
 
25.【2016·全国新课标III】Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which    46   (gradual) turned into chopsticks.
【答案】gradually考
【解析】查副词。副词修饰动词或形容词,这里修饰动词短语turned into,应该用副词,故填gradually。
 
26.【2016·上海】(B)Up to a certain point, the more stress you are under, the (35)_____(good) your performance will be.
【答案】better  
【解析】考查固定句式“The+比较级....., the+比较级”意为“越....就越.....”。本句句意:你承受的压力越大,你的表现就会越好。所以本空使用good的比较级形式better.
 
27.【2016·四川】Chinese scientists 42  (recent) had a chance to study a wild female panda with a newborn baby. She was a very 43  (care)mother.
【答案】recently  【解析】副词修饰动词,故填recently。
【答案】caring/careful 【解析】此处是现在分词或形容词作定语,放在名词前面,故填caring/careful。
 
28.【2015·全国卷Ⅱ】Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat 65.________(slow) during cool nights,thus warming the house.
【答案】slowly 
【解析】根据空格前面的give out that heat和后面的during cool nights可知,这里使用副词修饰动词短语give out。
 
29.【2015·全国卷Ⅱ】As 69.________(nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
【答案】natural 
【解析】结合空格后面的architects可知此处要用形容词作定语修饰后面的名词,因此填natural。
 
30.【2015·全国卷I】But I didn't care. A few hours 62.________, I'd been at home in Hong Kong, with  its choking smog.
【答案】before/earlier
【解析】考查副词的用法。几个小时前, “我”在香港的家里。注意不可以用ago。
 
31.【2015·全国卷I】Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it 69.________(regular) arranges quick getaways here for people living in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
【答案】regularly   
【解析】考查副词的用法。该旅游公司定期为人们安排这里适合旅行的地方。这里用副词修饰动词。
 
32.【2014·新课标全国卷Ⅰ】While there are_______68(amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the  changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be_______70(patience)
【答案】amazing
【解析】这里空格处应该用形容词,来修饰后面的名词,amazing指令人吃惊的;amazed指人感到吃惊的。这里不是用来修饰人的,故用amazing。
【答案】patient
【解析】需要的是耐心。patience“耐心”是名词;因为空格前有系动词be,所以这里应该用形容词patient。
 
33.【2014·新课标全国卷Ⅰ】The rive was so polluted that it ______62(actual) caught fire and burned.
【答案】actually
【解析】这里应该用副词来修饰动词caught,actual实际上,是形容词;actually实际上,是副词。
 
34.【2014·新课标全国卷Ⅰ】Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is______66(clean) than ever.
【答案】cleaner
【解析】现在河里的水比以前更清了。根据后面的比较连词than可知这里应该用比较级,故用cleaner.
 
35.【2014新课标全国II】There were many people waiting at the bus stop, and some of them looked very anxious and  63  (disappoint).
【答案】disappointed
【解析】考查形容词。由前面可知人们感到失望,用-ed结尾的形容词disappointed。
 
36. 【2014新课标全国II】And the passengers _70_(sudden) became friendly to one another.
【答案】suddenly
【解析】考查副词。此处是修饰动词,所以应该用副词做状语,填suddenly。
 
III.短文改错
1. 【2019·新课标I卷·短文改错】I became interesting in playing football thanks to a small accident.
【答案】interesting改为interested
【解析】考查形容词用法。“interest(使感兴趣;使关注)”的形容词有interesting(使人感兴趣的)常修饰物;与interested(表现出兴趣的)常修饰人。本句的意思为:多亏一个偶然的事件,我对踢足球产生了兴趣。主语是I,故将interesting改为interested。
 
2. 【2019·新课标I卷·短文改错】I stopped the ball and kicked it hardly back to the playground.
【答案】hardly改为hard
【解析】考查副词。hard(努力地;费力地)与hardly(几乎不;几乎没有)都为副词,但是词义不同。文中表示我挡住足球,并使劲地将它踢回操场,故将hardly改为hard。
 
3. 【2019·新课标I卷·短文改错】To everyone`s surprising, the ball went into the net.
【答案】surprising改为surprise
【解析】考查固定搭配。“to one’s + 名词”意为“令某人……”,此处为to one’s surprise意为“让某人惊讶的是”。故将surprising改为surprise。
 
4. 【2019·新课标II卷·短文改错】First, I wanted to be a fireman, whose uniform looked so coolly.
【答案】coolly改为cool
【解析】考查形容词。looked是系动词,表示“看起来”,后面使用形容词作表语,故coolly改为cool。
 
5. 【2019·新课标II卷·短文改错】Then, when I was in the fifth grade, I wanted to be a teacher because I liked my English teacher too much.
【答案】too改为very/so
【解析】考查副词。too much表示“太多”,而very/so much表示“非常”,故改为very或so。
 
6. 【2019·新课标II卷·短文改错】One was that I was amazing at the fact that a sick person could feel much more better after seeing a doctor.
【答案】amazing改为amazed
【解析】考查非谓语动词。根据前面的主语I可知,后面应该使用amazed表示“感到惊奇”。去掉more考查形容词比较级。本句中better本身已经是比较级,前面只需要much来修饰,改变程度,more是多余的。故删除more。
 
7. 【2019·新课标III卷·短文改错】What I want is not just an ordinarily cafe but a very special one.
【答案】ordinarily改为ordinary
【解析】考查形容词副词。修饰名词作前置定语,此处应用形容词表示“一家普通的咖啡馆”。故将ordinarily改为ordinary。
 
8. 【2018·全国I】 I felt happily that their life had improved.
【答案】happily改成happy   
【解析】考查形容词作表语。他们的生活有了很大提高,我感到很高兴。此处形容词作表语,故将happily改成happy。
 
9. 【2018·全国III】  Immediate, I raised my hand.
【答案】immediate改为immediately
【解析】考查副词。此处要用副词在句中做状语修饰整个句子,故把immediate改为immediately。
 
10.【2016·全国新课标I】Instead, he hopes that our business will grow steady.
【答案】stead →steadily  
【解析】考查副词。根据句意可知此处grow是实意动词,意思是 “增长”,不是系动词,故用副词修饰。
 
11.【2016·四川】The dishes what I cooked were Mom’s favoritiest.
【答案】favoritest---favorite   
【解析】“favorite”本身就是“最喜欢”,故把favoritest---favorite。
 
12.【2016·浙江】When I was a very young child, my father created a regular practice I remember well years late.
【答案】late改成later
【解析】late是形容词“迟的”,或副词“迟地”,但是“一段时间后面应该接later”,表示“……时间以后”。故late改成later。
 
13.【2016·浙江】It was both excited and frightening to be up there!
【答案】excited改成exciting
【解析】这句话的主语是形式主语it,真正的主语是to be up there,主语是物的时候,表语应该用现在分词形式的形容词。故excited改成exciting。
 
14.【2015·陕西】My mum makes the better biscuits in the world, so I decide to ask her for help.
【答案】better改成best
【解析】句意:我妈妈做的是世界上最好的饼干。用最高级,better改成best。
 
15.【2015·陕西】I thought the biscuits were really well.
【答案】well改成good
【解析】句意:我认为这些饼干很好。做表语用形容词,well改成good。
 
16. 【2015·新课标全国I】Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem.
【答案】seriously—serious
【解析】句意:全球变暖已经成为严重的问题。词性用法错误。修饰名词,前面用形容词修饰。
 
17.【2015·浙江】On the left-hand side of the class, I could easy see the football field.  
【答案】easy-easily
【解析】考查副词  此处的副词修饰动词see。
 
18.【2015·新课标全国II】Mom said,“How nice to see you again! Dad and I were terrible worried. ”
【答案】terrible改为terribly  
【解析】修饰形容词worried要用副词,故 terrible改为terribly。
 
19.[2014·新课标全国卷Ⅰ]We are growing wonderfully tomatoes at no cost!
【答案】wonderfully改为wonderful
【解析】tomatoes 是名词,应该用形容词来修饰。副词常常修饰动词。所以把wonderfully改为wonderful。
 
20.[2014·新课标全国卷Ⅰ]The fruits are small in size, but juicy and taste.
【答案】taste改成tasty
【解析】这种果子个头小,但是汁多、味道好。这里放在are后面,应该用形容词。所以把taste改成tasty。
 
21.[2014·陕西卷]My uncles immediate jumped up and shot their arrows on the bird.
【答案】immediate→immediately
【解析】考查副词用法。此处应用副词修饰动词jumped,故immediate→immediately。
 
22.[2014·浙江卷]I had noticed that the carriage was noise and filled with people.
【答案】noise—noisy
【解析】我注意到车厢里是吵闹的,并且车厢里满人。这里was是系动词,后应该用形容词noisy吵闹的;noise吵闹,是名词。
 
23.[2014·浙江卷]No one in the carriage had previous spoken to or even noticed the ticket-owner before.
【答案】previous—previously
【解析】先前车厢里没人和票的主人说话或注意到他。Previous以前的,是形容词;previously先前,是副词。这里应该用副词来修饰动词had spoken。
 
24.[2014·新课标全国卷Ⅱ]The teachers here are kind and helpfully.
【答案】helpfully →helpful
【解析】考查形容词和副词。The teachers here are kind and helpfully .涉及知识:系动词后要跟形容词做表语,所以把helpfully改为helpful。
 
25.[2014·四川卷] Don't panic or get out of line, and trying to remain quiet and calmly.
【答案】calmly---calm
【解析】考查形容词的用法。remain quiet and calmly。Remain是系动词,后面用形容词作表语,故把calmly改为calm。
 
 
 

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